Echarri, S.; Ercoli, M.D.; Amelia Chemisquy, M.; Turazzini, G.; Prevosti, F.J."Mandible morphology and diet of the South American extinct metatherian predators (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta)" (2017) Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 106(4):277-288
Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


Sparassodonta is a diverse group of extinct metatherian predators that include forms with diets ranging from omnivores to hypercarnivores, including potential bone-crushers and sabre-Tooth specialised species. Most of the previous dietary studies on the group were based on qualitative approaches or dental morphometric indexes and/or bite force estimations. In this study, we explore the evolution of mandible shape and diet of Sparassodonta in a comparative phylogenetic framework, using geometric morphometric tools and allometric and discriminant analyses. We analysed the mandible shape of 142 extant species of marsupials and placental carnivores, and 15 fossil sparassodont species. We found that the relationship between shape and size of the mandible is strongly structured by phylogeny, where the more derived borhyaenoids tend to possess stronger and larger mandibles. Derived borhyaenoid sparassodonts and basal borhyaenoids were classified as hypercarnivores (with short and robust mandibular body). Hathliacynid were classified as mesocarnivores or as hypercarnivores, but with lower probabilities and less specialised morphologies (with a long and slender mandible). Although dental morphology suggests that most of the species of Sparassodonta would have been hypercarnivores, the robustness of the mandible seems to be informative regarding the prey size and degree of specialisation. The relationship between mandibular size and shape, and talonid/trigonid relative size, is strongly influenced by the phylogenetic legacy, suggesting that ecological factors could have influenced the evolution of the sparassodonts. © Copyright The Royal Society of Edinburgh 2017.


Documento: Artículo
Título:Mandible morphology and diet of the South American extinct metatherian predators (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta)
Autor:Echarri, S.; Ercoli, M.D.; Amelia Chemisquy, M.; Turazzini, G.; Prevosti, F.J.
Filiación:División Mastozoología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (CONICET), Av. Ángel Gallardo 470, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 1405, Argentina
Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas (INECOA), Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, CONICET, Av. Bolivia 1661, San Salvador de Jujuy, 4600, Argentina
Centro Regional de Investigaciones Científicas y Transferencia Tecnológica de la Rioja, Provincia de la Rioja, CONICET, Entre Ríos y Mendoza s.n., CP 5301, Anillaco, La Rioja, Argentina
Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Intendente Güiraldes 2160, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 1428, Argentina
Palabras clave:Borhyaenoidea; evolutionary constraints; geometric morphometrics; Hathliacynidae; palaeoecology; diet; evolutionary biology; marsupial; morphology; paleoecology; paleontology; predator; Mammalia; Metatheria; Sparassodonta
Página de inicio:277
Página de fin:288
Título revista:Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
Título revista abreviado:Earth Environ. Sci. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh


  • Albino, A., The South American fossil squamata (Reptilia: Lepidosauria (1996) Contributions of Southern South America to Vertebrate Paleontology, 30, pp. 185-202. , Arratia, G (ed.) . Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe A: Geologie und Palaöntologie
  • Ameghino, F., Enumération synoptique des espèces de mammifè res fósiles des formations éocenes de Patagonia (1894) Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Córdoba, 13, pp. 259-445
  • Argot, C., Functional adaptations of the postcranial skeleton of two Miocene borhyaenoids (Mammalia, Metatheria), Borhyaena and Prothylacinus, from South America (2003) Palaeontology, 46, pp. 1213-1267
  • Argot, C., Postcranial functional adaptations in the South American Miocene borhyaenoids (Mammalia, Metatheria): Cladosictis, Pseudonotictis, and Sipalocyon (2003) Alcheringa, 27, pp. 303-356
  • Argot, C., Functional-Adaptive features of the postcranial skeleton of a sabertooth borhyaenoid, Thylacosmilus atrox (Metatheria), and palaeobiologic implications (2004) Alcheringa, 28, pp. 229-266
  • Argot, C., Functional-Adaptative analysis of the postcranial skeleton of a Laventan borhyaenoid, Lycopsis longirostris (Marsupialia, Mammalia (2004) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24, pp. 689-708
  • Argot, C., Evolution of South American mammalian predators (Borhyaenoidea): Anatomical and palaeobiological implications (2004) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140, pp. 487-521
  • Attard, M.R.G., Parr, W.C.H., Wilson, L.A.B., Archer, M., Hand, S.J., Rogers, T.L., Wroe, S., Virtual reconstruction and prey size preference in the mid Cenozoic Thylacinid, Nimbacinus dicksoni (Thylacinidae, Marsupialia) (2014) PloSOne, 9, p. e93088
  • Beck, R., A dated phylogeny of marsupials using a molecular supermatrix and multiple fossil constraints (2008) Journal of Mammalogy, 89, pp. 175-189
  • Blanco, R.E., Jones, W.W., Grinspan, G.A., Fossil marsupial predators of South America (Marsupialia, Borhyaenoidea): Bite mechanics and palaeobiological implications (2011) Alcheringa, 35, pp. 377-387
  • Bookstein, F.L., Principal warps: Thin-plate splines and the decomposition of deformations (1989) IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 11, pp. 567-585
  • Bookstein, F.L., (1991) Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data: Geometry and Biology, p. 357. , New York: Cambridge University Press
  • Bookstein, F.L., Landmark methods for forms without landmarks: Morphometrics of group differences in outline shape (1997) Medical Image Analysis, 1, pp. 225-243
  • Carbone, C., Mace, G.M., Roberts, S.C., Macdonald, D.W., Energetic constraints on the diet of terrestrial carnivores (1999) Nature, 402, pp. 286-288
  • Carbone, C., Teacher, A., Rowcliffe, M., The cost of carnivory (2007) PLoS Biology, 5, pp. 363-368
  • Echarri, S., Prevosti, F.J., Differences in mandibular disparity between extant and extinct species of metatherian and placental carnivore clades (2015) Lethaia, 48, pp. 196-204
  • Engelman, R.K., Croft, D.A., A new small-bodied sparassodont (Mammalia: Metatheria) from the middle Miocene locality of Quebrada Honda, Bolivia (2014) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34, pp. 672-688
  • Ercoli, M.D., Prevosti, F.J., Alvarez, A., Form and function within a phylogenetic framework: Locomotory habits of extant predators and some Miocene Sparassodonta (Metatheria (2012) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 165, pp. 224-251
  • Ercoli, M.D., Prevosti, F.J., Forasiepi, A.M., The structure of the mammalian predator guild in the Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene) (2014) Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 21, pp. 369-381
  • Ercoli, M.D., Prevosti, F.J., Estimación de masa de las especies de Sparassodonta (Mammalia, Metatheria) de edad Santacrucense (Mioceno temprano) a partir de los elementos apendiculares: Inferencias paleoecológicas (2011) Ameghiniana, 48, pp. 462-479
  • Flores, D.A., Phylogenetic analyses of postcranial skeletal morphology in didelphid marsupials (2009) Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 320, pp. 1-81
  • Flynn, J.J., Finarelli, J.A., Zehr, S., Hsu, J., Nedbal, M.A., Molecular phylogeny of the Carnivora (Mammalia): Assessing the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships (2005) Systematic Biology, 54, pp. 317-337
  • Forasiepi, A.M., Osteology of Arctodictis sinclairi (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta) and phylogeny of Cenozoic metatherian carnivores from South America (2009) Monografías Del Museo de Ciencias Naturales, 6, pp. 1-174
  • Forasiepi, A.M., Goin, F.J., Tauber, A.A., Las especies de Arctodictis Mercerat 1891 (Metatheria, Borhyaenidae), grandes carnívoros del Mioceno de América del sur (2004) Revista Espanola de Paleontología, 19, pp. 1-22
  • Forasiepi, A.M., Martinelli, A.G., Goin, F.J., Revisión taxonómica de Parahyaenodon argentinus Ameghino y sus implicancias en el conocimiento de los grandes mamíferos carnívoros del Mio-Plioceno de América de sur (2007) Ameghiniana, 44, pp. 143-159
  • Forasiepi, A.M., Judith Babot, M., Zimicz, N., Australohyaena antiqua (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta), a large predator from the Late Oligocene of Patagonia (2014) Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 6, pp. 1-23
  • Forasiepi, A.M., Babot, M.A., Zimicz, N., Australohyaena antiqua (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta), a large predator from the late Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina (2015) Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 13, pp. 503-525
  • Forasiepi, A.M., Carlini, A.A., A new thylacosmilid (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta) from the Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina (2010) Zootaxa, 2552, pp. 55-68
  • Gasparini, Z., New Tertiary Sebecosuchia (Crocodylia: Mesosuchia) from Argentina (1984) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4, pp. 85-95
  • Gaubert, P., Wozencraft, W.C., Cordeiro-Estrela, P., Veron, G., Mosaics of convergences and noise in morphological phylogenies: Whats in a viverrid-like carnivoran? (2005) Systematic Biology, 54, pp. 865-894
  • Goin, F.J., Pascual, R., News on the biology and taxonomy of the marsupials Thylacosmilidae (late Tertiary of Argentina) (1987) Anales de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 39, pp. 219-256
  • Goodall, C.R., Procrustes methods in the statistical analysis of shape (1991) Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 53, pp. 285-339
  • Goswami, A., Milne, N., Wroe, S., Biting through constraints: Cranial morphology, disparity and convergence across living and fossil carnivorous mammals (2011) Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 278, pp. 1831-1839
  • Jackson, D.A., Stopping rules in principal components analysis: A comparison of heuristical and statistical approaches (1993) Ecology, 74, pp. 2204-2214
  • Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E., Obrien, S.J., The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment (2006) Science, 311, pp. 73-77
  • Jones, M., Convergence in ecomorphology and guild structure among marsupial and placental carnivores (2003) Predators with Pouches: The Biology of Carnivorous Marsupials, 285 (96), p. 486. , Jones M., Dickman, C. & Archer, M. (eds) . Melbourne: CSIRO Publications
  • Klingenberg, C.P., MorphoJ: An integrated software package for geometric morphometrics (2011) Molecular Ecology Resources, 11, pp. 353-357
  • Koepfli, K.P., Jenks, S.M., Eizirik, E., Zahirpour, T., Van Valkenburgh, B., Wayne, R.K., Molecular systematics of the Hyaenidae: Relationships of a relictual lineage resolved by a molecular supermatrix (2006) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 38, pp. 603-620
  • Koepfli, K.P., Gompper, M.E., Eizirik, E., Ho, C.C., Linden, L., Maldonado, J.E., Wayne, R.K., Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): Molecules, morphology and the great American interchange (2007) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43, pp. 1076-1095
  • Koepfli, K.P., Deere, K.A., Slater, G.J., Begg, C., Begg, K., Grassman, L., Lucherini, M., Wayne, R.K., Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation (2008) BMC Biology, 6, p. 10
  • Kovarovic, K., Aiello, L.C., Cardini, A., Lockwood, C.A., Discriminant function analyses in archaeology Are classification rates too good to be true? (2011) Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, pp. 3006-3018
  • Krajewski, C., Westerman, M., Molecular systematics of Dasyuromorphia (2003) Predators with Pouches: The Biology of Carnivorous Marsupials, (185-202), p. 486. , Jones M., Dickman, C. & Archer, M. (eds) . Melbourne: CSIRO Publications
  • Krause, J., Unger, T., Nocon, A., Malaspinas, A.-S., Kolokotronis, S.-O., Stiller, M., Soibelzon, L., Hofreiter, M., Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (2008) BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8, pp. 1471-2148
  • Legendre, P., Legendre, L., (1998) Numerical Ecology, p. 853. , 2nd English edition. Amsterdam Elsevier
  • Marshall, L.G., Evolution of the Thylacosmilidae, extinct sabertooth marsupials of South America (1976) PaleoBios, 23, pp. 1-30
  • Marshall, L.G., Evolution of the carnivorous adaptative zone in South America (1977) Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution, 709 (21), p. 908. , Hecht M. K., Goody, P. C. & Hecht, B. M. (eds) . New York: Plenum Press. ix +
  • Marshall, L.G., A new species of Lycopsis (Borhyaenidae, Marsupialia) from the la Venta Fauna (Miocene) of Colombia, South America (1977) Journal of Paleontology, 51, pp. 633-642
  • Marshall, L.G., Evolution of the Borhyaenidae, extinct South American predaceous marsupials University of California (1978) Publications in Geological Science, 17, pp. 1-89
  • Marshall, L.G., Review of the Prothylacyninae, an extinct subfamily of South American dog-like marsupials (1979) Fieldiana Geology, New Series, 3, pp. 1-49
  • Marshall, L.G., Review of the Hathyliacyninae, an extinct subfamily of South American dog-like marsupials (1981) Fieldiana Geology, New Series, 7, pp. 1-120
  • Martins, E.P., Hansen, T.F., Phylogenies and the comparative method: A general approach to incorporating phylogenetic information into the analysis of interspecific data (1997) American Naturalist, 149, pp. 646-667
  • Meloro, C., Raia, P., Piras, P., Barbera, C., Ohiggins, P., The shape of the mandibular corpus in large fissiped carnivores: Allometry, function and phylogeny (2008) Zoological Journal of Linnean Society, 154, pp. 832-845
  • Meloro, C., Raia, P., Cats and dogs down the tree: The tempo and mode of evolution in the lower carnassial of fossil and living Carnivora (2010) Evolutionary Biology, 37, pp. 177-186
  • Mendoza, M., Janis, C.M., Palmqvist, P., Characterizing complex craniodental patterns related to feeding behaviour in ungulates: A multivariate approach (2002) Journal of Zoology, 258, pp. 223-246
  • Mitteroecker, P., Bookstein, F.L., Linear discrimination, ordination, and the visualization of selection gradients in modern morphometrics (2011) Evolutionary Biology, 38, pp. 100-114
  • De Muizon, C., Lange-Badré, B., Carnivorous dental adaptations in tribosphenic mammals and phylogenetic reconstruction (1997) Lethaia, 30, pp. 353-366
  • Neff, N.A., Marcus, L.F., (1980) A Survey of Multivariate Methods for Systematics, p. 234. , New York: Privately published
  • Paradis, E., Claude, J., Strimmer, K., APE: Analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language (2004) Bioinformatics, 20, pp. 289-290
  • Pascual, R., Evolution and geography: The biogeographic history of South American land mammals (2006) Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 93, pp. 209-230
  • Pascual, R., Bocchino, A., Un nuevo Borhyaeninae (Marsupialia) del Plioceno medio de Hidalgo (La Pampa) (1963) Ameghiniana, 3, pp. 97-107
  • Patou, M.L., McLenachan, P.A., Morley, C.G., Couloux, A., Cruaud, C., Jennings, A.P., Veron, G., Molecular phylogeny of the Herpestidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) with a special emphasis on the Asian Herpestes (2009) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 53, pp. 69-80
  • Patterson, B., Pascual, R., The fossil mammal fauna of South America (1972) Evolution, Mammals, and Southern Continents, (247-309), p. 543. , Keast, A., Erk, F C. & Glass, B. (eds) . Albany State University of New York Press
  • Perez, S.I., Bernal, V., Gonzalez, P., Differences between sliding semi-landmark methods in geometric morphometrics, with an application to human craniofacial and dental variation (2006) Journal of Anatomy, 208, pp. 769-784
  • Prevosti, F.J., Phylogeny of the large extinct South American canids (Mammalia, Carnivora, Canidae) using a total evidence approach (2010) Cladistics, 26, pp. 456-481
  • Prevosti, F.J., Turazzini, G.F., Chemisquy, M.A., Morfología craneana en tigres dientes de sable: Alometría, función y filogenia (2010) Ameghiniana, 47, pp. 239-256
  • Prevosti, F.J., Turazzini, G.F., Ercoli, M.D., Hingst-Zaher, E., Mandible shape in marsupial and placental carnivorous mammals: A morphological comparative study using geometric morphometrics (2012) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 164, pp. 836-855
  • Prevosti, F.J., Forasiepi, A.M., Ercoli, M.D., Turazzini, G.F., Paleoecology of the mammalian carnivores (Metatheria, Sparassodonta) of Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene (2012) Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation, 173 (87), p. 378. , Vizcaíno, S. F., Kay, R. F. & Bargo M. S. (eds) . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
  • Prevosti, F.J., Forasiepi, A., Zimicz, N., The evolution of the Cenozoic terrestrial mammalian predator guild in South America competition or replacement? (2013) Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 20, pp. 3-21
  • Prevosti, F.J., Pereira, J.A., Community structure of South American carnivores in the past and present (2014) Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 21, pp. 363-368
  • Prevosti, F.J., Soibelzon, L.H., The evolution of South American carnivore fauna: A paleontological perspective (2012) Bones, Clones and Biomes: The History and Geography of Recent Neotropical Mammals, 102 (22), p. 368. , Patterson, B. & Costa L. P. (eds) . Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  • (2010) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ,, R Development Core Team
  • Reig, O., Teoría del origen y desarrollo de la fauna de mamíferos de América del sur (1981) Monographie Naturae, 1, pp. 1-162
  • Reyment, R.A., Blackith, R.E., Campbell, N.A., (1984) Multivariate Morphometrics, p. 412. , London Academic Press
  • Riff, D., Seyferth, P.R.R., Ribeiro Oliveira, G., Aguilera, O.A., Neogene crocodile and turtle fauna in northern South America (2010) Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past, 259 (80), p. 464. , Hoorn C. & Wesselingh, F. P. (eds) . Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
  • Rohlf, F.J., Relative warp analysis and an example of its application to mosquito wings (1993) Contributions to Morphometrics, 8 (131), p. 264. , Marcus, L. F., Bello, E. & Garcia-Valdecasas, A. (eds) . Madrid: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales59
  • Rohlf, F.J., Shape statistics: Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks (1999) Systematic Zoology, 39, pp. 40-59
  • Rohlf, F.J., (2006) Stony Brook: Department of Ecology and Evolution, 21. , TpsDig, ver State University of New York at Stony Brook
  • Rohlf, F.J., (2007) Stony Brook: Department of Ecology and Evolution, , TpsRelw, ver 1.45 State University of New York at Stony Brook
  • Rohlf, F.J., (2008) Stony Brook: Department of Ecology and Evolution, , TpsUtil, ver 1.40 State University of New York at Stony Brook
  • Sato, J.J., Wolsan, M., Minami, S., Hosoda, T., Shinaga, M.H., Hiyama, K., Yamaguchi, Y., Suzuki, H., Deciphering and dating the red pandas ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea (2009) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 53, pp. 907-922
  • Sheets, H.D., (2003) IMP-Integrated Morphometrics Package, , Buffalo: Department of Physics, Caisius College
  • Simpson, G.G., Post-Mesozoic marsupialia (1930) Fossilium Catalogus, (1-87), p. 47. , Pompeckj, J. F. (ed.) I: Animalia. Pars. Berlin: W. Junk
  • Simpson, G.G., History of the fauna of Latin America (1950) American Scientist, 38, pp. 361-389
  • Simpson, G.G., (1980) Splendid Isolation. The Curious History of South American Mammals, p. 274. , New Haven CT Yale University Press
  • Sinclair, W.J., Mammalia of the Santa Cruz beds (1906) Report of the Princeton University Expedition to Patagonia, 4, pp. 333-360
  • Strahan, R., (1995) The Mammals of Australia, p. 746. , Sydney: New Holland Publishers
  • Therrien, F., Mandibular force profiles of extant carnivorans and implications for the feeding behaviour of extinct predators (2005) The Journal of Zoology (London, 267, pp. 249-270
  • Van Valkenburgh, B., Carnivore dental adaptations and diet: A study of trophic diversity within guilds (1989) Carnivore Behavior, Ecology and Evolution, 1 (410), p. 620. , Gittleman, J. L. (ed) 36. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press
  • Van Valkenburgh, B., Wang, X., Damuth, J., Copes rule, hypercarnivory and extinction in North American canids (2004) Science, 306, pp. 101-104
  • Venables, W.N., Ripley, B., (2002) Modern Applied Statistics with S, 4th Edn, p. 495. , New York Springer
  • Vizcaíno, S.F., Bargo, M.S., Kay, R.F., Farinã, R.A., Di Giacomo, M., Perry, J.M., Prevosti, F.J., Fernicola, J.C., A baseline paleoecological study for the Santa Cruz Formation (late-early Miocene) at the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, Argentina (2010) Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 292, pp. 507-519
  • Werdelin, L., Comparison of skull shape in marsupial and placental carnivores (1986) Australian Journal of Scientific Research, 34, pp. 109-117
  • Werdelin, L., Jaw geometry and molar morphology in marsupial carnivores: Analysis of a constraint and its macroevolutionary consequences (1987) Paleobiology, 13, pp. 342-350
  • Wolsan, M., Sato, J., Multilocus DNA phylogeny of Mustelidae and the ancestry of South American species (2009) 10th International Mammalogical Congress, Abstracts, 59, p. 356. , Nevo, E., Mares M., Johnson, C., Marroig, G. & Marquet, P. A. (eds) . Lincoln University of Nebraska
  • Wroe, S., Myers, T., Wells, R.T., Gillespie, A., Estimating the weight of the Pleistocene marsupial lion (Thylacoleo carnifex: Thylacoleonidae): Implications for the ecomorphology of a marsupial super-predator and hypotheses of impoverishment of Australian marsupial carnivore faunas (1999) Australian Journal of Zoology, 47, pp. 489-498
  • Wroe, S., Myers, T., Seebacher, F., Kear, B., Gillespie, A., Crowther, M., Salisbury, S., An alternative method for predicting body mass: The case of the Pleistocene marsupial lion (2003) Paleobiology, 29, pp. 403-411
  • Wroe, S., Argot, C., Dickman, C., On rarity of the big fierce carnivores and primacy of isolation and area: Tracking large mammalian carnivore diversity on two isolated continents (2004) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271, pp. 1203-1211
  • Wroe, S., Chamoli, U., Parr, W.C.H., Clausen, P., Ridgely, R., Witmer, L., Comparative biomechanical modeling of metatherian and placental saber-Tooths: A different kind of bite for an extreme pouched predator (2013) PLoSOne, 8 (6), p. e0066888
  • Wroe, S., Milne, N., Convergence and remarkably consistent constraint in the evolution of carnivore skull shape (2007) Evolution, 61 (5), pp. 1251-1260
  • Zelditch, M.L., Swiderski, D.L., Sheets, H.D., Fink, W.L., (2004) Geometric Morphometrics for Biologists: A Primer, p. 403. , San Diego Elsevier Academic Press
  • Zimicz, A.N., (2012) Ecomorfología de Los Marsupiales Paleógenos de América Del sur, p. 414. , PhD Thesis, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
  • Zimicz, A.N., Avoiding competition: The ecological history of Late Cenozoic metatherian carnivores in South America (2014) Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 21, pp. 383-393


---------- APA ----------
Echarri, S., Ercoli, M.D., Amelia Chemisquy, M., Turazzini, G. & Prevosti, F.J. (2017) . Mandible morphology and diet of the South American extinct metatherian predators (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta). Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 106(4), 277-288.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Echarri, S., Ercoli, M.D., Amelia Chemisquy, M., Turazzini, G., Prevosti, F.J. "Mandible morphology and diet of the South American extinct metatherian predators (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta)" . Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 106, no. 4 (2017) : 277-288.
---------- MLA ----------
Echarri, S., Ercoli, M.D., Amelia Chemisquy, M., Turazzini, G., Prevosti, F.J. "Mandible morphology and diet of the South American extinct metatherian predators (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta)" . Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. 106, no. 4, 2017, pp. 277-288.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Echarri, S., Ercoli, M.D., Amelia Chemisquy, M., Turazzini, G., Prevosti, F.J. Mandible morphology and diet of the South American extinct metatherian predators (Mammalia, Metatheria, Sparassodonta). Earth Environ. Sci. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh. 2017;106(4):277-288.