Larrosa, P.N.F.; Ojea, A.; Ojea, I.; Molina, V.A.; Zorrilla-Zubilete, M.A.; Delorenzi, A."Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation" (2017) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 142:135-145
Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase. However, previous studies show that the expression of memories during reminder sessions is not a condition to trigger the reconsolidation process since unexpressed memories can be reactivated and labilized. Here we evaluate whether it is possible to reactivate-labilize a memory under the impairing-effects of a mild stressor. We used a paradigm of human declarative memory whose reminder structure allows us to differentiate between a reactivated-labile memory state and a reactivated but non-labile state. Subjects memorized a list of five cue-syllables associated with their respective response-syllables. Seventy-two hours later, results showed that the retrieval of the paired-associate memory was impaired when tested 20 min after a mild stressor (cold pressor stress (CPS)) administration, coincident with cortisol levels increase. Then, we investigated the long-term effects of CPS administration prior to the reminder session. Under conditions where the reminder initiates the reconsolidation process, CPS impaired the long-term memory expression tested 24 h later. In contrast, CPS did not show effects when administered before a reminder session that does not trigger reconsolidation. Results showed that memory reactivation-labilization occurs even when retrieval was impaired. Memory reactivation under stress could hinder -via reconsolidation- the probability of the traces to be expressed in the long term. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Documento: Artículo
Título:Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation
Autor:Larrosa, P.N.F.; Ojea, A.; Ojea, I.; Molina, V.A.; Zorrilla-Zubilete, M.A.; Delorenzi, A.
Filiación:Laboratorio de Neurobiología de la Memoria, Departamento de Fisiología y Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIByNE-CONICET, Pabellón II, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria C1428EHA, Argentina
Departamento de Matemática, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires - Inst. de Investigaciones Matemáticas “Luis A. Santalo ́”, CONICET-UBA, Argentina
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, IFEC-CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina
Centro de Estudios Farmacológicos y Botánicos (CEFYBO - CONICET), Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Palabras clave:Memory; Memory expression; Reactivation; Reconsolidation; Retrieval; hydrocortisone; hydrocortisone; adult; adverse outcome; Article; associative memory; brain depth stimulation; cold pressor test; cold stress; controlled study; declarative memory; female; human; long term memory; major clinical study; male; memory consolidation; memory disorder; mental capacity; mental performance; mental stress; mental task; neuroanatomy; probability; recall; association; associative learning; blood pressure; chemistry; cold; memory consolidation; neuropsychological test; physiological stress; physiology; recall; saliva; Association Learning; Blood Pressure; Cold Temperature; Cues; Female; Humans; Hydrocortisone; Male; Memory Consolidation; Mental Recall; Neuropsychological Tests; Saliva; Stress, Physiological
Página de inicio:135
Página de fin:145
Título revista:Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Título revista abreviado:Neurobiol. Learn. Mem.
CAS:hydrocortisone, 50-23-7; Hydrocortisone


  • Agren, T., Engman, J., Frick, A., Bjorkstrand, J., Larsson, E.M., Furmark, T., Fredrikson, M., Disruption of reconsolidation erases a fear memory trace in the human amygdala (2012) Science, 337, pp. 1550-1552
  • Alberini, C.M., Reconsolidation: The samsara of memory consolidation (2007) Debates in Neuroscience, 1, pp. 17-24
  • Barco, A., Bailey, C.H., Kandel, E.R., Common molecular mechanisms in explicit and implicit memory (2006) Journal of Neurochemistry, 97, pp. 1520-1533
  • Barreiro, K.A., Suarez, L.D., Lynch, V.M., Molina, V.A., Delorenzi, A., Memory expression is independent of memory labilization/reconsolidation (2013) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 106C, pp. 283-291
  • Barros, D.M., Izquierdo, L.A., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I., Pharmacological findings contribute to the understanding of the main physiological mechanisms of memory retrieval (2003) Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders, 2, pp. 81-94
  • Barto, A., Mirolli, M., Baldassarre, G., Novelty or surprise? (2013) Frontiers Psychology, 4, p. 907
  • Beckner, V.E., Tucker, D.M., Delville, Y., Mohr, D.C., Stress facilitates consolidation of verbal memory for a film but does not affect retrieval (2006) Behavioral Neuroscience, 120, pp. 518-527
  • Ben Mamou, C., Gamache, K., Nader, K., NMDA receptors are critical for unleashing consolidated auditory fear memories (2006) Nature Neuroscience, 9, pp. 1237-1239
  • Blake, M.G., Boccia, M.M., Krawczyk, M.C., Delorenzi, A., Baratti, C.M., Choline reverses scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving memory reconsolidation (2012) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 98, pp. 112-121
  • Bos, M.G., Jacobs van Goethem, T.H., Beckers, T., Kindt, M., Cortisol response mediates the effect of post-reactivation stress exposure on contextualization of emotional memories (2014) Psychoneuroendocrinology, 50, pp. 72-84
  • Bos, M.G., Schuijer, J., Lodestijn, F., Beckers, T., Kindt, M., Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory (2014) Psychoneuroendocrinology, 46, pp. 102-113
  • Brembs, B., Towards a scientific concept of free will as a biological trait: Spontaneous actions and decision-making in invertebrates (2011) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 278, pp. 930-939
  • Buchanan, T.W., Tranel, D., Adolphs, R., Impaired memory retrieval correlates with individual differences in cortisol response but not autonomic response (2006) Learning & Memory, 13, pp. 382-387
  • Bustos, S.G., Giachero, M., Maldonado, H., Molina, V.A., Previous stress attenuates the susceptibility to Midazolam's disruptive effect on fear memory reconsolidation: Influence of pre-reactivation D-cycloserine administration (2010) Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, pp. 1097-1108
  • Caffaro, P.A., Suarez, L.D., Blake, M.G., Delorenzi, A., Dissociation between memory reactivation and its behavioral expression: Scopolamine interferes with memory expression without disrupting long-term storage (2012) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 98, pp. 235-245
  • Cahill, L., van Stegeren, A., Sex-related impairment of memory for emotional events with beta-adrenergic blockade (2003) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 79, pp. 81-88
  • Cai, W.H., Blundell, J., Han, J., Greene, R.W., Powell, C.M., Postreactivation glucocorticoids impair recall of established fear memory (2006) Journal of Neuroscience, 26, pp. 9560-9566
  • Chen, S., Cai, D., Pearce, K., Sun, P.Y., Roberts, A.C., Glanzman, D.L., Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia (2014) Elife, 3, p. e03896
  • Cheung, J., Garber, B., Bryant, R.A., The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories (2015) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 123, pp. 28-34
  • Coccoz, V., Maldonado, H., Delorenzi, A., The enhancement of reconsolidation with a naturalistic mild stressor improves the expression of a declarative memory in humans (2011) Neuroscience, 185, pp. 61-72
  • Coccoz, V., Sandoval, A.V., Stehberg, J., Delorenzi, A., The temporal dynamics of enhancing a human declarative memory during reconsolidation (2013) Neuroscience, 246, pp. 397-408
  • de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., McGaugh, J.L., Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory (1998) Nature, 394, pp. 787-790
  • de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R.M., McGaugh, J.L., Hock, C., Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans (2000) Nature Neuroscience, 3, pp. 313-314
  • Delorenzi, A., Maza, F.J., Suarez, L.D., Barreiro, K., Molina, V.A., Stehberg, J., Memory beyond expression (2014) Journal of Physiology - Paris, 108, pp. 307-322
  • Diaz-Mataix, L., Ruiz Martinez, R.C., Schafe, G.E., LeDoux, J.E., Doyere, V., Detection of a temporal error triggers reconsolidation of amygdala-dependent memories (2013) Current Biology, 23, pp. 467-472
  • Dodd, S.X., Lukowiak, K., Sequential exposure to a combination of stressors blocks memory reconsolidation in Lymnaea (2015) Journal of Experimental Biology, 218, pp. 923-930
  • Drexler, S.M., Merz, C.J., Hamacher-Dang, T.C., Tegenthoff, M., Wolf, O.T., Effects of cortisol on reconsolidation of reactivated fear memories (2015) Neuropsychopharmacology, 40, pp. 3036-3043
  • Dudai, Y., Memory from A to Z (2002), Oxford University Press; Dudai, Y., Reconsolidation: The advantage of being refocused (2006) Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16, pp. 174-178
  • Dudai, Y., Predicting not to predict too much: How the cellular machinery of memory anticipates the uncertain future (2009) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 364, pp. 1255-1262
  • Dudai, Y., The restless engram: Consolidations never end (2012) Annual Review of Neuroscience, 35, pp. 227-247
  • Dudai, Y., Eisenberg, M., Rites of passage of the engram: Reconsolidation and the lingering consolidation hypothesis (2004) Neuron, 44, pp. 93-100
  • Dudai, Y., Morris, R.G., Memorable trends (2013) Neuron, 80, pp. 742-750
  • Eisenberg, M., Kobilo, T., Berman, D.E., Dudai, Y., Stability of retrieved memory: Inverse correlation with trace dominance (2003) Science, 301, pp. 1102-1104
  • Fernandez, R.S., Bavassi, L., Forcato, C., Pedreira, M.E., The dynamic nature of the reconsolidation process and its boundary conditions: Evidence based on human tests (2016) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 130, pp. 202-212
  • Fernandez, R.S., Boccia, M.M., Pedreira, M.E., The fate of memory: Reconsolidation and the case of Prediction Error (2016) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 68, pp. 423-441
  • Finn, B., Roediger, H.L., 3rd, Rosenzweig, E., Reconsolidation from negative emotional pictures: Is successful retrieval required? (2012) Memory & Cognition
  • Forcato, C., Argibay, P.F., Pedreira, M.E., Maldonado, H., Human reconsolidation does not always occur when a memory is retrieved: The relevance of the reminder structure (2009) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 91, pp. 50-57
  • Forcato, C., Burgos, V.L., Argibay, P.F., Molina, V.A., Pedreira, M.E., Maldonado, H., Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans (2007) Learning & Memory, 14, pp. 295-303
  • Forcato, C., Rodriguez, M.L., Pedreira, M.E., Repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes strengthen declarative memory in humans (2011) PLoS ONE, 6, p. e23305
  • Forcato, C., Rodriguez, M.L., Pedreira, M.E., Maldonado, H., Reconsolidation in humans opens up declarative memory to the entrance of new information (2010) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 93, pp. 77-84
  • Frenkel, L., Maldonado, H., Delorenzi, A., Memory strengthening by a real-life episode during reconsolidation: An outcome of water deprivation via brain angiotensin II (2005) European Journal of Neuroscience, 22, pp. 1757-1766
  • Frenkel, L., Suarez, L.D., Maldonado, H., Delorenzi, A., Angiotensin modulates long-term memory expression but not long-term memory storage in the crab Chasmagnathus (2010) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 94, pp. 509-520
  • Gagnon, S.A., Wagner, A.D., Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: Neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences (2016) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1369, pp. 55-75
  • Gisquet-Verrier, P., Riccio, D.C., Memory reactivation effects independent of reconsolidation (2012) Learning & Memory, 19, pp. 401-409
  • Glanzman, D.L., Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates (2010) Current Biology, 20, pp. R31-36
  • Gold, P.E., The many faces of amnesia (2006) Learning & Memory, 13 (5), pp. 506-514
  • Hupbach, A., Dorskind, J.M., Stress selectively affects the reactivated components of a declarative memory (2014) Behavioral Neuroscience, 128, pp. 614-620
  • Agren, T., Human reconsolidation: A reactivation and update (2014) Brain Research Bulletin, 105C, pp. 70-82
  • Kindt, M., Soeter, M., Vervliet, B., Beyond extinction: Erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear (2009) Nature Neuroscience, 12, pp. 256-258
  • Kindt, M., van Emmerik, A., New avenues for treating emotional memory disorders: Towards a reconsolidation intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (2016) Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 6, pp. 283-295
  • Lee, J.L., Flavell, C.R., Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization (2014) Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, p. 144
  • Lewis, D.J., Psychobiology of active and inactive memory (1979) Psychological Bulletin, 86, pp. 1054-1083
  • Luethi, M., Meier, B., Sandi, C., Stress effects on working memory, explicit memory, and implicit memory for neutral and emotional stimuli in healthy men (2008) Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2, p. 5
  • Lukowiak, K., Fras, M., Smyth, K., Wong, C., Hittel, K., Reconsolidation and memory infidelity in Lymnaea (2007) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 87, pp. 547-560
  • Lupien, S.J., Schramek, T.E., The differential effects of stress on memory consolidation and retrieval: A potential involvement of reconsolidation? Theoretical comment on Beckner et al. (2006) (2006) Behavioral Neuroscience, 120, pp. 735-738
  • Maza, F.J., Locatelli, F.F., Delorenzi, A., Neural correlates of expression-independent memories in the crab Neohelice (2016) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 131, pp. 61-75
  • Maza, F.J., Sztarker, J., Shkedy, A., Peszano, V.N., Locatelli, F.F., Delorenzi, A., Context-dependent memory traces in the crab's mushroom bodies: Functional support for a common origin of high-order memory centers (2016) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, pp. E7957-E7965
  • McGaugh, J.L., Memory – A century of consolidation (2000) Science, 287, pp. 248-251
  • McGaugh, J.L., Roozendaal, B., Role of adrenal stress hormones in forming lasting memories in the brain (2002) Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12, pp. 205-210
  • Meir Drexler, S., Wolf, O.T., Stress disrupts the reconsolidation of fear memories in men (2016) Psychoneuroendocrinology, 77, pp. 95-104
  • Menzel, R., Memory dynamics in the honeybee (1999) Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 185, pp. 323-340
  • Menzel, R., The honeybee as a model for understanding the basis of cognition (2012) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, pp. 758-768
  • Merlo, E., Bekinschtein, P., Jonkman, S., Medina, J.H., Molecular mechanisms of memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and persistence (2015) Neural Plasticity, 2015, p. 687175
  • Merz, C.J., Wolf, O.T., Hennig, J., Stress impairs retrieval of socially relevant information (2010) Behavioral Neuroscience, 124, pp. 288-293
  • Miller, R.R., Matzel, L.D., Retrieval failure versus memory loss in experimental amnesia: Definitions and processes (2006) Learning & Memory, 13, pp. 491-497
  • Milton, A.L., Merlo, E., Ratano, P., Gregory, B.L., Dumbreck, J.K., Everitt, B.J., Double dissociation of the requirement for GluN2B- and GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors in the destabilization and restabilization of a reconsolidating memory (2013) Journal of Neuroscience, 33, pp. 1109-1115
  • Morris, R.G., Inglis, J., Ainge, J.A., Olverman, H.J., Tulloch, J., Dudai, Y., Kelly, P.A., Memory reconsolidation: Sensitivity of spatial memory to inhibition of protein synthesis in dorsal hippocampus during encoding and retrieval (2006) Neuron, 50, pp. 479-489
  • Nader, K., Hardt, O., Lanius, R., Memory as a new therapeutic target (2013) Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 15, pp. 475-486
  • Nader, K., Schafe, G.E., Ledoux, J.E., The labile nature of consolidation theory (2000) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, pp. 216-219
  • Nader, K., Wang, S.H., Fading in (2006) Learning & Memory, 13, pp. 530-535
  • Pedreira, M.E., (2013), pp. 213-232. , Reconsolidation of Declarative Memory (pp.); Pedreira, M.E., Maldonado, H., Protein synthesis subserves reconsolidation or extinction depending on reminder duration (2003) Neuron, 9 (38), pp. 863-869
  • Pedreira, M.E., Perez-Cuesta, L.M., Maldonado, H., Mismatch between what is expected and what actually occurs triggers memory reconsolidation or extinction (2004) Learning & Memory, 11, pp. 579-585
  • Pedreira, M.E., Romano, A., Memory reconsolidation and extinction in invertebrates: Evolutionarily conserved characteristics of memory reprocessing and restabilization (2013) Memory reconsolidation, pp. 139-164. , C.M. Alberini Academic Press San Diego, CA, USA
  • Przybyslawski, J., Roullet, P., Sara, S.J., Attenuation of emotional and nonemotional memories after their reactivation: Role of beta adrenergic receptors (1999) Journal of Neuroscience, 19, pp. 6623-6628
  • Przybyslawski, J., Sara, S.J., Reconsolidation of memory after its reactivation (1997) Behavioural Brain Research, 84, pp. 241-246
  • Rescorla, R.A., Wagner, A.R., A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement (1972) In classical conditioning II: Current research and theory, pp. 64-69. , A.H. Black W.F. Prokasy Appleton-Century Crofts New York
  • Rodriguez, M.L., Campos, J., Forcato, C., Leiguarda, R., Maldonado, H., Molina, V.A., Pedreira, M.E., Enhancing a declarative memory in humans: The effect of clonazepam on reconsolidation (2012) Neuropharmacology, 64, pp. 432-442
  • Rodriguez-Ortiz, C.J., Bermudez-Rattoni, F., Determinants to trigger memory reconsolidation: The role of retrieval and updating information (2016), Neurobiology of Learning and Memory; Rodriguez-Ortiz, C.J., Balderas, I., Garcia-Delatorre, P., Bermudez-Rattoni, F., Taste aversion memory reconsolidation is independent of its retrieval (2012) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
  • Rodriguez-Ortiz, C.J., Garcia-DeLaTorre, P., Benavidez, E., Ballesteros, M.A., Bermudez-Rattoni, F., Intrahippocampal anisomycin infusions disrupt previously consolidated spatial memory only when memory is updated (2008) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 89, pp. 352-359
  • Roediger, H.L., Dudai, Y., Fitzpatrick, S.M., Science of memory concepts: (2007), Oxford University Press USA; Roozendaal, B., Stress and memory: Opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval (2002) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, pp. 578-595
  • Roozendaal, B., Griffith, Q.K., Buranday, J., de Quervain, D.J., McGaugh, J.L., The hippocampus mediates glucocorticoid-induced impairment of spatial memory retrieval: dependence on the basolateral amygdala (2003) Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, pp. 1328-1333
  • Roozendaal, B., McEwen, B.S., Chattarji, S., Stress, memory and the amygdala (2009) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, pp. 423-433
  • Roozendaal, B., McGaugh, J.L., Memory modulation (2011) Behavioral Neuroscience, 125, pp. 797-824
  • Roozendaal, B., Okuda, S., de Quervain, D.J., McGaugh, J.L., Glucocorticoids interact with emotion-induced noradrenergic activation in influencing different memory functions (2006) Neuroscience, 138, pp. 901-910
  • Ryan, T.J., Roy, D.S., Pignatelli, M., Arons, A., Tonegawa, S., Memory. Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia (2015) Science, 348, pp. 1007-1013
  • Sandi, C., Pinelo-Nava, M.T., Stress and memory: Behavioral effects and neurobiological mechanisms (2007) Neural Plasticity, 2007, p. 78970
  • Santoyo-Zedillo, M., Rodriguez-Ortiz, C.J., Chavez-Marchetta, G., Bermudez-Rattoni, F., Balderas, I., Retrieval is not necessary to trigger reconsolidation of object recognition memory in the perirhinal cortex (2014) Learning & Memory, 21, pp. 452-456
  • Sara, S.J., Retrieval and reconsolidation: Toward a neurobiology of remembering (2000) Learning & Memory, 7, pp. 73-84
  • Sara, S.J., Hars, B., In memory of consolidation (2006) Learning & Memory, 13, pp. 515-521
  • Schiller, D., Monfils, M.H., Raio, C.M., Johnson, D.C., Ledoux, J.E., Phelps, E.A., Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms (2010) Nature, 463, pp. 49-53
  • Schonfeld, P., Ackermann, K., Schwabe, L., Remembering under stress: Different roles of autonomic arousal and glucocorticoids in memory retrieval (2014) Psychoneuroendocrinology, 39, pp. 249-256
  • Schulz, A., Plein, D.E., Richter, S., Blumenthal, T.D., Schachinger, H., Cold pressor stress affects cardiac attenuation of startle (2011) International Journal of Psychophysiology
  • Schwabe, L., Nader, K., Pruessner, J.C., Reconsolidation of human memory: Brain mechanisms and clinical relevance (2014) Biological Psychiatry
  • Schwabe, L., Wolf, O.T., New episodic learning interferes with the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories (2009) PLoS ONE, 4, p. e7519
  • Schwabe, L., Wolf, O.T., Stress impairs the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories (2010) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
  • Schwabe, L., Wolf, O.T., Timing matters: Temporal dynamics of stress effects on memory retrieval (2014) Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, pp. 1041-1048
  • Sevenster, D., Beckers, T., Kindt, M., Retrieval per se is not sufficient to trigger reconsolidation of human fear memory (2012) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
  • Sevenster, D., Beckers, T., Kindt, M., Prediction error governs pharmacologically induced amnesia for learned fear (2013) Science, 339, pp. 830-833
  • Sevenster, D., Beckers, T., Kindt, M., Prediction error demarcates the transition from retrieval, to reconsolidation, to new learning (2014) Learning & Memory, 21, pp. 580-584
  • Shadlen, M.N., Kiani, R., Decision making as a window on cognition (2013) Neuron, 80, pp. 791-806
  • Soeter, M., Kindt, M., Dissociating response systems: Erasing fear from memory (2010) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 94, pp. 30-41
  • Summers, M.J., Crowe, S.F., Ng, K.T., Memory retrieval in the day-old chick: A psychobiological approach (2003) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27 (3), pp. 219-231
  • Sweatt, J.D., Retrieval: Molecular mechanisms (2007) Science of memory: Concepts, , H.L. RoedigerIII Y. Dudai S.M. Fitzpatrick Oxford University Press New York
  • Tollenaar, M.S., Elzinga, B.M., Spinhoven, P., Everaerd, W., Long-term outcomes of memory retrieval under stress (2008) Behavioral Neuroscience, 122, pp. 697-703
  • Tollenaar, M.S., Elzinga, B.M., Spinhoven, P., Everaerd, W.A., The effects of cortisol increase on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress (2008) Acta Psychologica (Amst), 127, pp. 542-552
  • Tollenaar, M.S., Elzinga, B.M., Spinhoven, P., Everaerd, W., Immediate and prolonged effects of cortisol, but not propranolol, on memory retrieval in healthy young men (2009) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 91, pp. 23-31
  • Tomer, R., Denes, A.S., Tessmar-Raible, K., Arendt, D., Profiling by image registration reveals common origin of annelid mushroom bodies and vertebrate pallium (2010) Cell, 142, pp. 800-809
  • Tronel, S., Alberini, C.M., Persistent disruption of a traumatic memory by postretrieval inactivation of glucocorticoid receptors in the amygdala (2007) Biological Psychiatry, 62, pp. 33-39
  • Tulving, E., Ecphoric processes in episodic memory (1983) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 302, pp. 361-370
  • Wichert, S., Wolf, O.T., Schwabe, L., Reactivation, interference, and reconsolidation: Are recent and remote memories likewise susceptible? (2011) Behavioral Neuroscience, 125, pp. 699-704
  • Winters, B.D., Tucci, M.C., DaCosta-Furtado, M., Older and stronger object memories are selectively destabilized by reactivation in the presence of new information (2009) Learning & Memory, 16, pp. 545-553
  • Wolf, O.T., Stress and memory in humans: Twelve years of progress? (2009) Brain Research, 1293, pp. 142-154
  • Wolf, O.T., Kuhlmann, S., Buss, C., Hellhammer, D.H., Kirschbaum, C., Cortisol and memory retrieval in humans: Influence of emotional valence (2004) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, pp. 195-197
  • Wolff, G.H., Strausfeld, N.J., Genealogical correspondence of a forebrain centre implies an executive brain in the protostome-deuterostome bilaterian ancestor (2016) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, p. 371


---------- APA ----------
Larrosa, P.N.F., Ojea, A., Ojea, I., Molina, V.A., Zorrilla-Zubilete, M.A. & Delorenzi, A. (2017) . Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 142, 135-145.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Larrosa, P.N.F., Ojea, A., Ojea, I., Molina, V.A., Zorrilla-Zubilete, M.A., Delorenzi, A. "Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation" . Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 142 (2017) : 135-145.
---------- MLA ----------
Larrosa, P.N.F., Ojea, A., Ojea, I., Molina, V.A., Zorrilla-Zubilete, M.A., Delorenzi, A. "Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation" . Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 142, 2017, pp. 135-145.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Larrosa, P.N.F., Ojea, A., Ojea, I., Molina, V.A., Zorrilla-Zubilete, M.A., Delorenzi, A. Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 2017;142:135-145.