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While grasslands, one of Earth's major biomes, are known for their close evolutionary ties with ungulate grazers, these habitats are also paramount to the origins and diversification of other animals. Within the primarily South American spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Anyphaenidae), several species are found living in the continent's grasslands, with some displaying putative morphological adaptations to dwelling unnoticed in the grass blades. Herein, a dated molecular phylogeny provides the backbone for analyses revealing the ecological and morphological processes behind these spiders' grassland adaptations. The multiple switches from Patagonian forests to open habitats coincide with the expansion of South America's grasslands during the Miocene, while the specialized morphology of several grass-dwelling spiders originated at least three independent times and is best described as the result of different selective regimes operating on macroevolutionary timescales. Although grass-adapted lineages evolved towards different peaks in adaptive landscape, they all share one characteristic: an anterior narrowing of the prosoma allowing spiders to extend the first two pairs of legs, thus maintaining a slender resting posture in the grass blade. By combining phylogenetic, morphological, and biogeographic perspectives we disentangle multiple factors determining the evolution of a clade of terrestrial invertebrate predators alongside their biomes. © 2018 The Author(s).


Documento: Artículo
Título:The Grass was Greener: Repeated Evolution of Specialized Morphologies and Habitat Shifts in Ghost Spiders Following Grassland Expansion in South America
Autor:Sara Ceccarelli, F.; Koch, N.M.; Soto, E.M.; Barone, M.L.; Arnedo, M.A.; Ramírez, M.J.
Filiación:División de Aracnología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "bernardino Rivadavia", Av. Angel Gallardo 470, Buenos Aires, C1405DJR, Argentina
Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, CONACYT-Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Carr Tijuana-Ensenada 3918, Ensenada, B.C., 22860, Mexico
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, United States
Departamento de Ecología Genética y Evolución, IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II (C1428 EHA), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, Barcelona, E-8028, Spain
Palabras clave:Amaurobioidinae; anyphaenidae; biogeography; convergence; macroevolution; morphometrics; adaptation; anatomy and histology; animal; classification; ecosystem; evolution; genetics; grassland; phylogeny; physiology; South America; spider; Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Biological Evolution; Ecosystem; Grassland; Phylogeny; South America; Spiders
Página de inicio:63
Página de fin:77
Título revista:Systematic Biology
Título revista abreviado:Syst. Biol.


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---------- APA ----------
Sara Ceccarelli, F., Koch, N.M., Soto, E.M., Barone, M.L., Arnedo, M.A. & Ramírez, M.J. (2019) . The Grass was Greener: Repeated Evolution of Specialized Morphologies and Habitat Shifts in Ghost Spiders Following Grassland Expansion in South America. Systematic Biology, 68(1), 63-77.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Sara Ceccarelli, F., Koch, N.M., Soto, E.M., Barone, M.L., Arnedo, M.A., Ramírez, M.J. "The Grass was Greener: Repeated Evolution of Specialized Morphologies and Habitat Shifts in Ghost Spiders Following Grassland Expansion in South America" . Systematic Biology 68, no. 1 (2019) : 63-77.
---------- MLA ----------
Sara Ceccarelli, F., Koch, N.M., Soto, E.M., Barone, M.L., Arnedo, M.A., Ramírez, M.J. "The Grass was Greener: Repeated Evolution of Specialized Morphologies and Habitat Shifts in Ghost Spiders Following Grassland Expansion in South America" . Systematic Biology, vol. 68, no. 1, 2019, pp. 63-77.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Sara Ceccarelli, F., Koch, N.M., Soto, E.M., Barone, M.L., Arnedo, M.A., Ramírez, M.J. The Grass was Greener: Repeated Evolution of Specialized Morphologies and Habitat Shifts in Ghost Spiders Following Grassland Expansion in South America. Syst. Biol. 2019;68(1):63-77.