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Genomes contain the necessary information to ensure that genes are expressed in the right place, at the right time, and with the proper rate. Metazoan developmental genes often possess long stretches of DNA flanking their coding sequences and/or large introns which contain elements that influence gene expression. Most of these regulatory elements are relatively small and can be studied in isolation. For example, transcriptional enhancers, the elements that generate the expression pattern of a gene, have been traditionally studied with reporter constructs in transgenic animals. These studies have provided and will provide invaluable insights into enhancer evolution and function. However, this experimental approach has its limits; often, enhancer elements do not faithfully recapitulate native expression patterns. This fact suggests that additional information in cis-regulatory regions modulates the activity of enhancers and other regulatory elements. Indeed, recent studies have revealed novel functional aspects at the level of whole cis-regulatory regions. First, the discovery of "shadow enhancers." Second, the ubiquitous interactions between cis-regulatory elements. Third, the notion that some cis-regulatory regions may not function in a modular manner. Last, the effect of chromatin conformation on cis-regulatory activity. In this article, I describe these recent findings and discuss open questions in the field. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Documento: Artículo
Título:Multiple layers of complexity in cis-regulatory regions of developmental genes
Autor:Frankel, N.
Filiación:Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, IEGEBA-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Palabras clave:Chromatin conformation; Cis-regulatory elements; Cis-regulatory regions; Developmental genes; Regulatory-element interaction; Shadow enhancers; DNA; article; chromatin; cis regulatory region; conformational transition; developmental gene; DNA methylation; Drosophila melanogaster; embryo; embryo development; epigenetics; gene control; gene locus; nonhuman; priority journal; regulatory sequence; Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly; Enhancer Elements, Genetic; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Humans; Animalia; Metazoa
Página de inicio:1857
Página de fin:1866
Título revista:Developmental Dynamics
Título revista abreviado:Dev. Dyn.
CAS:DNA, 9007-49-2


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---------- APA ----------
(2012) . Multiple layers of complexity in cis-regulatory regions of developmental genes. Developmental Dynamics, 241(12), 1857-1866.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Frankel, N. "Multiple layers of complexity in cis-regulatory regions of developmental genes" . Developmental Dynamics 241, no. 12 (2012) : 1857-1866.
---------- MLA ----------
Frankel, N. "Multiple layers of complexity in cis-regulatory regions of developmental genes" . Developmental Dynamics, vol. 241, no. 12, 2012, pp. 1857-1866.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Frankel, N. Multiple layers of complexity in cis-regulatory regions of developmental genes. Dev. Dyn. 2012;241(12):1857-1866.