Soto, E.M.; Labarque, F.M.; Ceccarelli, F.S.; Arnedo, M.A.; Pizarro-Araya, J.; Ramírez, M.J."The life and adventures of an eight-legged castaway: Colonization and diversification of Philisca ghost spiders on Robinson Crusoe Island (Araneae, Anyphaenidae)" (2017) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 107:132-141
Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


Oceanic archipelagoes, by their young origin and isolation, provide privileged settings to study the origin and diversification of species. Here, we study the anyphaenid spider genus Philisca, endemic to the Valdivian temperate rainforest, which includes species living both on the mainland as well as on the Robison Crusoe Island in the Juan Fernández archipelago. Anyphaenids, as many spiders, are potentially good colonizers due their ability for ballooning, an airborne dispersal mediated by strands of silk that are caught in the wind. We use a molecular approach to estimate both the phylogenetic relationships and the timeframe of species diversification of Philisca, with the aim to infer its evolutionary history. We further estimate the rates of speciation on both the insular and continental Philisca species and score the microhabitat used by each species and their sizes as a proxy to evaluate ecological niche diversification within the island. Most analyses support the monophyly of Philisca, with the exclusion of Philisca tripunctata. Our results reveal colonization from a single lineage that postdated the origin of the island, followed by rapid (∼2 Ma) diversification. The ancestral microhabitat was most likely leaf-dwelling but we identify two independent microhabitat shifts. Our data provides evidence that Philisca has undergone an adaptive radiation on the Robison Crusoe Island. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Documento: Artículo
Título:The life and adventures of an eight-legged castaway: Colonization and diversification of Philisca ghost spiders on Robinson Crusoe Island (Araneae, Anyphaenidae)
Autor:Soto, E.M.; Labarque, F.M.; Ceccarelli, F.S.; Arnedo, M.A.; Pizarro-Araya, J.; Ramírez, M.J.
Filiación:Departamento de Ecología Genética y Evolución, IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II (C1428 EHA), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Laboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas (LECZ), Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, São Paulo, SP 05503-900, Brazil
Division of Arachnology, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Ángel Gallardo 470, C1405DJR, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Departament de Biologia Animal & Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, Barcelona, E-8028, Spain
Laboratorio de Entomología Ecológica, Depto. de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Casilla 599, La Serena, Chile
Palabras clave:Biogeography; Phylogenetic; Rapid diversification; Robinson Crusoe Island; Spiders; animal; classification; ecosystem; geography; island (geological); phylogeny; spider; statistical model; Animals; Ecosystem; Geography; Islands; Likelihood Functions; Phylogeny; Spiders
Página de inicio:132
Página de fin:141
Título revista:Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Título revista abreviado:Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.


  • Ackerly, D.D., Schwilk, D.W., Webb, C.O., Niche evolution and adaptive radiation: testing the order of trait divergence (2006) Ecology, 87, pp. S50-S61
  • Agnarsson, I., Kuntner, M., The generation of a biodiversity hotspot: biogeography of the western Indian Ocean islands (2012) Current Topics in Phylogenetics and Phylogeography of Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems, pp. 33-82. , K. Anamthawat-Jonsson Tech Publishers Rijeka
  • Anderson, G.J., Bernardello, G., Stuessy, T.F., Crawford, D.J., Breeding system and pollination of selected plants endemic to Juan Fernández Islands (2001) Am. J. Bot., 88 (2), pp. 220-233
  • Arnedo, M.A., Orom, P., Ribera, C., Radiation of the spider genus Dysdera (Araneae, Dysderidae) in the Canary Islands: cladistic assessment based on multiple data sets (2001) Cladistics, 17, pp. 313-353
  • Arnedo, M.A., Coddington, J., Agnarsson, I., Gillespie, R.G., From a comb to a tree: phylogenetic relationships of the comb-footed spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial genes (2004) Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 31, pp. 225-245
  • Baker, P.E., An outline of the geology of the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (1967) Geol. Mag., 104 (2), pp. 110-115
  • Bell, J.R., Bohan, D.A., Shaw, E.M., Weyman, G.S., Ballooning dispersal using silk: world fauna, phylogenies, genetics and models (2005) B. Entomol. Res., 95, pp. 69-114
  • Bernardello, G., Aguilar, R., Anderson, G.J., The reproductive biology of Sophora fernandeziana (Leguminosae), a vulnerable endemic species from isla Robinson Crusoe (2004) Am. J. Bot., 91 (2), pp. 198-206
  • Bidegaray-Batista, L., Arnedo, M.A., Gone with the plate: the opening of the Western Mediterranean basin drove the diversification of ground-dweller spiders (2011) BMC Evol. Biol., 11, p. 317
  • Blandenier, G., Fürst, P.A., Balloning spiders caught by a suction trap in an agricultural landscape in Switzerland (1998) Proceedings of the 17th European Colloquium of Arachnology, Edinburgh, pp. 177-186. , P.A. Selden British Arachnological Society Buckinghamshore
  • Burridge, C.P., Meléndez, R., Dyer, B.S., Multiple origins of the Juan Fernández kelpfish fauna and evidence for frequent and unidirectional dispersal of Cirrhitoid fishes across the South Pacific (2006) Syst. Biol., 55 (4), pp. 566-578
  • Carson, H.L., Templeton, A.R., Genetic revolutions in relation to speciation phenomena: the founding of new populations (1984) Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S., 15, pp. 97-131
  • Cook, L.G., Crisp, M.D., Directional asymmetry of long-distance dispersal and colonization could mislead reconstructions of biogeography (2005) J. Biogeogr., 32, pp. 741-754
  • Crawford, D.J., Stuessy, T.F., Haines, D.W., Cosner, M.B., Silva, O.M., Lopez, P., Allozyme diversity within and divergence among four species of Robinsonia (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a genus endemic to the Juan Fernandez islands (1992) Chile. Am. J. Bot., 79, pp. 962-966
  • Darwin, C., The Zoology of the Voyage of H (1839) M.S. Beagle: Under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., During the Years 1832–1836.
  • de Queiroz, A., The resurrection of oceanic dispersal in historical biogeography (2005) Trends Ecol. Evol., 20 (2), pp. 68-73
  • De Busschere, C., Hendrickx, F., Van Belleghem, S.M., Backeljau, T., Lens, L., Baert, L., Parallel habitat specialization within the wolf spider genus Hogna from the Galápagos (2010) Mol. Ecol., 19 (18), pp. 4029-4045
  • Dean, D.A., Sterling, W.L., Size and phenology of ballooning spiders at two locations in eastern Texas (1985) J. Arachnol., 13, pp. 111-120
  • Dimitrov, D., Arnedo, M.A., Ribera, C., Colonization and diversification of the spider genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae, Pholcidae) in the Macaronesian archipelagos: evidence for long-term occupancy yet rapid recent speciation (2008) Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48 (2), pp. 596-614
  • Donald, K.D., Kennedy, M., Spencer, H.G., Cladogenesis as the result of long-distance rafting events in south Pacific topshells (Gastropoda, Trochidae) (2005) Evolution, 59 (8), pp. 1701-1711
  • Drummond, A.J., Suchard, M.A., Xie, D., Rambaut, A., Bayesian phylogenetics with BEAUti and the BEAST 1.7 Mol (2012) Biol. Evol., 29, pp. 1969-1973
  • Foelix, R.F., Biology of Spiders (2011), third ed. Oxford University Press Printed in the United States of America; Garb, J.E., Gillespie, R.G., Diversity despite dispersal: colonization history and phylogeography of Hawaiian crab spiders inferred from multilocus genetic data (2009) Mol. Ecol., 18, pp. 1746-1764
  • Gavrilets, S., Losos, J.B., Adaptive Radiation: Contrasting Theory with Data (2009) Science, 232, pp. 732-737
  • Gillespie, R.G., Croom, H.B., Palumbi, S.R., Multiple origins of a spider radiation in Hawaii (1994) P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 91 (6), pp. 2290-2294
  • Gillespie, R.G., Roderick, G.K., Arthropods on islands: colonization, speciation, and conservation (2002) Annu. Rev. Entomol., 47, pp. 595-632
  • Gillespie, R.G., Claridge, E.M., Goodacre, S.L., Biogeography of the fauna of French Polynesia: diversification within and between a series of hot spot archipelagos (2008) Philos. T. R. Soc. B, 363, pp. 3335-3346
  • Gillespie, R.G., Chapter 4. Biogeography. From testing patterns to understanding processes in spiders and related arachnids (2013) Spider Research in the 21st Century: Trends & Perspectives, pp. 154-185. , D. Penney Siri Scientific Press Manchester
  • Goloboff, P.A., Estimating character weights during tree search (1993) Cladistics, 9, pp. 83-91
  • Goloboff, P.A., Farris, J.S., Nixon, K.C., TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis (2008) Cladistics, 24, pp. 774-786
  • Greenstone, M.H., Morgan, C.E., Hultsh, A.L., Ballooning spiders in Missouri, USA, and New South Wales, Australia: family and mass distributions (1987) J. Arachnol., 15, pp. 163-170
  • Greimler, J., Stuessy, T., Swenson, U., Baeza, C., Matthei, O., Plant invasions on an oceanic archipelago (2002) Biol. Invasions, 4, pp. 73-85
  • Gressitt, J.L., Some distribution patterns of Pacific Island Faunae (1956) Syst. Zool., 5 (1), pp. 32-47
  • Hayashi, M., Bakkali, M., Hyde, A., Goodacre, S.L., Sail or sink: novel behavioural adaptations on water in aerially dispersing species (2015) BMC Evol. Biol., 15 (1), p. 118
  • Heled, J., Drummond, A.J., Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data (2010) Mol. Biol. Evol., 27, pp. 570-580
  • Kass, R.E., Raftery, A.E., Bayes factors (1995) J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 90 (430), pp. 773-795
  • Katoh, K., Toh, H., Parallelization of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program (2010) Bioinformatics, 26, pp. 1899-1900. , <>
  • Kirch, P.V., Christensen, C.C., Steadman, D.W., Subfossil land snails from Easter Island, including Hotumatua anakenana, New genus and species (Pulmonata: Achatinellidae) (2009) Pac. Sci., 63 (1), pp. 105-122
  • Hormiga, G., Arnedo, M., Gillespie, R.G., Speciation on a conveyor belt: sequential colonization of the Hawaiian Islands by Orsonwelles spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae) (2003) Syst. Biol., 52 (1), pp. 70-88
  • Labarque, F.M., Soto, E.M., Ramirez, M.J., Arnedo, M.A., Chasing ghosts: integrating morphological and molecular evidence to infer the phylogeny of Amaurobioidinae ghost spiders (Araneae, Anyphaenidae) (2015) Zool. Scr., 44 (5), pp. 550-561
  • Lewis, P.O., A likelihood approach to estimating phylogeny from discrete morphological characters data (2001) Syst. Biol., 50, pp. 913-925
  • López-Sepúlveda, P., Takayama, K., Greimler, J., Crawford, D.J., Peñailillo, P., Baeza, M., Ruiz, E., Stuessy, T.F., Speciation and Biogeography of Erigeron (Asteraceae) in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, Based on AFLPs and SSRs (2015) Syst. Bot., 40 (3), pp. 888-899
  • Maddison, W.P., Maddison, D.R., Mesquite: A Modular System for Evolutionary Analysis (2010),; MacArthur, R.H., Wilson, E.O., The theory of island biogeography (1967) Acta Biotheor., 50 (2), pp. 133-136
  • Mayr, E., The challenge of island faunas (1967) Aust. Nat. Hist., 15, pp. 359-374
  • Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W., Schwartz, T., Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees (2010) Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), Ne, pp. 1-8. , In: Orleans, pp
  • Millidge, A.F., Some linyphiid spiders from South America (Araneae, Linyphiidae) (1985) Am. Museum Novitates, 2836, pp. 1-78
  • Millidge, A.F., Further linyphiid spiders (Araneae) from South America (1991) B. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 205, pp. 1-199
  • Morrone, J., Biogeographic areas and transition zones of Latin America and the Caribbean islands based on panbiogeographic and cladistic analyses of the entomofauna (2006) Annu. Rev. Entomol., 51, pp. 467-494
  • Mueller-Dombois, D., Fosberg, F.R., Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands (1998), Springer New York; Muñoz, J., Felicísimo, A.M., Cabezas, F., Burgaz, A.R., Martínez, I., Wind as a long-distance dispersal vehicle in the Southern Hemisphere (2004) Science, 304, pp. 1144-1147
  • Nahuelhual, L., Donoso, P., Lara, A., Nuñez, D., Oyarzún, C., Neira, E., Valuing ecosystem services of Chilean temperate rainforests (2007) Environ. Develop. Sustain., 9, pp. 481-499
  • Nylander, J.A.A., Ronquist, F., Huelsenbeck, J.P., Nieves-Aldrey, J.L., Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of combined data (2004) Syst. Biol., 53, pp. 47-67
  • Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D'amico, J.A., Kassem, K.R., Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth (2001) BioScience, 51 (11), pp. 933-938
  • Paradis, E., Claude, J., Strimmer, K., APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language (2004) Bioinformatics, 20, pp. 289-290
  • Penney, D., Anyphaenidae in Miocene Dominican Republic amber (Arachnida, Araneae) (2000) J. Arachnol., 28, pp. 223-226
  • Posada, D., Buckley, T.R., Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests (2004) Syst. Biol., 53, pp. 793-808
  • Posada, D., JModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging (2008) Mol. Biol. Evol., 25 (7), pp. 1253-1256
  • Pybus, O.G., Harvey, P.H., Testing macro-evolutionary models using incomplete molecular phylogenies (2000) P. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 267, pp. 2267-2272
  • R Development Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (2009), R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna, Austria; Rabosky, D.L., Lovette, I.J., Explosive evolutionary radiations: increasing extinction or decreasing speciation through time? (2008) Evolution, 62, pp. 1866-1875
  • Rabosky, D.L., Schliep, K., LASER: A Maximum Likelihood Toolkit for Detecting Temporal Shifts in Diversification Rates from Molecular Phylogenies (2013), <>, Comprehensive R Archive Network Vienna (Austria); Rabosky, D.L., Grundler, M., Anderson, C., Title, P., Shi, J.J., Brown, J.W., Huang, H., Larson, J.G., BAMMtools: an R package for the analysis of evolutionary dynamics on phylogenetic trees (2014) Methods Ecol. Evol., 5, pp. 701-707
  • Rainey, P.B., Travisano, M., Adaptive radiation in a heterogeneous environment (1998) Nature, 394, pp. 69-72
  • Rambaut, A., 2006–2014. Tree Figure Drawing Tool Version 1.4. Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh. <>., ,
  • Rambaut, A., Drummund, A.J., Tracer Version 1.5: MCMC Trace Analysis Tool (2009), <>, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh; Ramírez, M.J., Revisión del género Liparotoma Simon, 1884 (Araneae, Anyphaenidae) (1993) Boletín de la Sociedad de Biología de Concepción, 64, pp. 195-207
  • Ramírez, M.J., The spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Araneae, Anyphaenidae): a phylogenetic revision at the generic level (2003) B. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 277, pp. 1-262
  • Ronquist, F., Huelsenbeck, J.P., MRBAYES 3: bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models (2003) Bioinformatics, 19, pp. 1572-1574
  • Ronquist, F., Huelsenbeck, J.P.,; Rundell, R.J., Price, T.D., Adaptive radiation, nonadaptive radiation, ecological speciation and nonecological speciation (2009) Trends Ecol. Evol., 24 (7), pp. 394-399
  • Sang, T., Crawford, D.J., Kim, S., Stuessy, T.F., Radiation of the endemic genus Dendroseris (Asteraceae) on the Juan Fernandez islands: evidence from sequences of the ITS regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (1994) Am. J. Bot., 81 (11), pp. 1494-1501
  • Schluter, D., Ecological causes of adaptation radiation (1996) Am. Nat., 148, pp. 40-64
  • Schluter, D., Price, T., Mooers, A., Ludwig, D., Likelihood of ancestors states in adaptation radiations (1997) Evolution, 51 (6), pp. 1699-1711
  • Schluter, D., The Ecology of Adaptation Radiation. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution (2000), Oxford University Press New York; Shaw, K.L., Gillespie, R.G., Comparative phylogeography of oceanic archipelagos: hotspots for inferences of evolutionary process (2016) PNAS, 113 (29), pp. 7986-7993
  • Silvestro, D., Michalak, I., RaxmlGUI: a graphical front-end for RAxML (2012) Org. Divers. Evol., 12, pp. 335-337
  • Soto, E.M., Ramírez, M.J., Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Philisca Simon (Araneae: Anyphaenidae, Amaurobioidinae) (2012) Zootaxa, 3443, pp. 1-65
  • Stamatakis, A., RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models (2006) Bioinformatics, 22, pp. 2688-2690
  • Stamatakis, A., Hoover, P., Rougemont, J., A fast bootstrapping algorithm for the RAxML web-servers (2008) Syst. Biol., 57 (5), pp. 758-771
  • Stuessy, T.F., Foland, K.A., Sutter, J.F., Sanders, R.W., Silva, O.M., Botanical and geological significance of potassium-argon dates from the Juan Fernández Islands (1984) Sci. New Ser., 225 (4657), pp. 49-51
  • Stuessy, T.F., Crawford, D.J., Patterns of phylogeny in the endemic vascular flora of the Juan Fernández islands (1990) Chile. Syst. Bot., 15 (2), pp. 338-346
  • Takayama, K., López Sepúlveda, P., Greimler, J., Crawford, D.J., Peñailillo, P., Baeza, M., Ruiz, E., Stuessy, T.F., Relationships and genetic consequences of contrasting modes of speciation among endemic species of Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, based on AFLPs and SSRs (2015) New Phytol., 205 (1), pp. 415-428
  • Vargas, R., Reif, A., Faúndez, M.J., The forests of Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile: an endemism hotspot in danger (2011) Bosque, 32 (2), pp. 155-164
  • World Spider Catalog, 2016. World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern, online at, version 17.0., ,
  • Wunderlich, J., Die fossilen Spinnen im dominikanischen Bernstein (1988) Beiträge zur Araneologie, 2, pp. 1-378
  • Xie, W., Lewis, P.O., Fan, Y., Kuo, L., Chen, M.H., Improving marginal likelihood estimation for Bayesian phylogenetic model selection (2011) Syst. Biol., 60, pp. 150-160


---------- APA ----------
Soto, E.M., Labarque, F.M., Ceccarelli, F.S., Arnedo, M.A., Pizarro-Araya, J. & Ramírez, M.J. (2017) . The life and adventures of an eight-legged castaway: Colonization and diversification of Philisca ghost spiders on Robinson Crusoe Island (Araneae, Anyphaenidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 107, 132-141.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Soto, E.M., Labarque, F.M., Ceccarelli, F.S., Arnedo, M.A., Pizarro-Araya, J., Ramírez, M.J. "The life and adventures of an eight-legged castaway: Colonization and diversification of Philisca ghost spiders on Robinson Crusoe Island (Araneae, Anyphaenidae)" . Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107 (2017) : 132-141.
---------- MLA ----------
Soto, E.M., Labarque, F.M., Ceccarelli, F.S., Arnedo, M.A., Pizarro-Araya, J., Ramírez, M.J. "The life and adventures of an eight-legged castaway: Colonization and diversification of Philisca ghost spiders on Robinson Crusoe Island (Araneae, Anyphaenidae)" . Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 107, 2017, pp. 132-141.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Soto, E.M., Labarque, F.M., Ceccarelli, F.S., Arnedo, M.A., Pizarro-Araya, J., Ramírez, M.J. The life and adventures of an eight-legged castaway: Colonization and diversification of Philisca ghost spiders on Robinson Crusoe Island (Araneae, Anyphaenidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 2017;107:132-141.