Artículo

Kahl, L.C.; Bianchi, A.A.; Osiroff, A.P.; Pino, D.R.; Piola, A.R."Distribution of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian Sea: Seasonal, biological and thermal effects" (2017) Continental Shelf Research. 143:18-28
Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor

Abstract:

Sea-air CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in the Patagonian Sea (PS) were studied using observations collected in 2000–2006. Based on the PS frontal structures and the thermal and biological contributions to FCO2 we present a regional subdivision between distinct regimes that provide new insights on the processes that control these fluxes. The coastal regime (CR) is a net source of atmospheric CO2 (4.9 × 10−3 mol m−2 d−1) while the open shelf regime (SHR) is a net CO2 sink (−6.0 × 10−3 mol m−2 d−1). The interface between these two regions closely follows the location of along-shore fronts. In addition, based on the nature of the processes that drive the FCO2, the PS is subdivided between northern (NR) and southern (SR) regions. Both, NR and SR are CO2 sinks, but the CO2 uptake is significantly higher in NR (−6.4 × 10−3 mol m−2 d−1) than in SR (−0.5 × 10−3 mol m−2 d−1). The data reveal a strong seasonality in FCO2. The mean CO2 capture throughout the PS in austral spring is −5.8 × 10−3 mol m−2 d−1, reaching values lower than −50 × 10−3 mol m−2 d−1 in NR, while in winter FCO2 is close to equilibrium in SR. The analysis of the biological and thermal effects (BE and TE, respectively) on seasonal pCO2 variability indicates that regions of CO2 emission are dominated by the TE while regions of CO2 uptake are dominated by the BE. Our results indicate that the biological pump is the dominant process determining the sea-air CO2 flux in the PS. © 2017 The Authors

Registro:

Documento: Artículo
Título:Distribution of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian Sea: Seasonal, biological and thermal effects
Autor:Kahl, L.C.; Bianchi, A.A.; Osiroff, A.P.; Pino, D.R.; Piola, A.R.
Filiación:Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Departamento Oceanografía, Servicio de Hidrografía Naval, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Expérimentation et Approches Numériques, Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
Palabras clave:Biological and thermal effects; Fronts; Patagonian Sea; Sea-air CO2 fluxes; Simpson parameter; Spatial variability; air-sea interaction; biological pump; carbon dioxide; carbon flux; equilibrium; front; parameterization; seasonal variation; seasonality; spatial variation; Atlantic Ocean; Patagonian Sea
Año:2017
Volumen:143
Página de inicio:18
Página de fin:28
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.05.011
Handle:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12110/paper_02784343_v143_n_p18_Kahl
Título revista:Continental Shelf Research
Título revista abreviado:Cont. Shelf Res.
ISSN:02784343
CODEN:CSHRD
Registro:https://bibliotecadigital.exactas.uba.ar/collection/paper/document/paper_02784343_v143_n_p18_Kahl

Referencias:

  • Acha, E.M., Mianzan, H.W., Guerrero, R.A., Favero, M., Bava, J., Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America. Physical and ecological processes (2004) J. Mar. Syst., 44, pp. 83-105
  • Atlas, R., Hoffman, R.N., Ardizzone, J., Leidner, S.M., Jusem, J.C., Smith, D.K., Gombos, D., A cross-calibrated, multiplatform ocean surface wind velocity product for meteorological and oceanographic applications (2011) Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 92, pp. 157-174
  • BaRDO, Base Regional de Datos Oceanográficos. Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero: Gabinete de Oceanografía Física, -Ministerio de Agricultura Ganadería y Pesca, Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura de la Nación. Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero. Paseo Victoria Ocampo N°1, Mar del Plata, Bs. As. Argentina; Bates, N.R., Air-sea CO2 fluxes and the continental shelf pump of carbon in the Chukchi Sea adjacent to the Arctic Ocean (2006) J. Geophys. Res., 111, p. C10013
  • Bates, N.R., Mathis, J.T., Jeffries, M.A., Air-sea CO2 fluxes on the Bering Sea shelf (2011) Biogeosciences, 8, pp. 1237-1253
  • Bianchi, A.A., Bianucci, L., Piola, A., Ruiz Pino, D., Schloss, I., Poisson, A., Balestrini, C., Vertical stratification and sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian shelf (2005) J. Geophys. Res., 110, p. C07003
  • Bianchi, A.A., Ruiz Pino, D., Isbert Perlender, H.G., Osiroff, A.P., Segura, V., Lutz, V., Clara, M.L., Piola, A.P., Annual balance and seasonal variability of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonia Sea: their relationship with fronts and chlorophyll distribution (2009) J. Geophys. Res., 114, p. C0301
  • Bogazzi, E., Baldoni, A., Rivas, A., Martos, P., Reta, R., Orensanz, J.L., Lasta, M., Werner, F., Spatial correspondence between areas of concentration of Patagonian scallop (Zygochlamys patagonica) and frontal systems in the southwestern Atlantic (2005) Fish. Oceanogr., 14 (5), pp. 359-376
  • Borges, A.V., Present day carbon dioxide fluxes in the coastal ocean and possible feedbacks under global change (2011), pp. 47-77. , http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9821-4_3, In: Oceans and the Atmospheric Carbon Content. Springer Netherlands. doi; Borges, A.V., Delille, B., Frankignoulle, M., Budgeting sinks and sources of CO2 in the coastal ocean: diversity of ecosystems counts (2005) Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, p. L14601
  • Boyer, T.P., Antonov, J.I., Baranova, O.K., Coleman, C., Garcia, H.E., Grodsky, A., Johnson, D.R., Zweng, M.M., World ocean database 2013 (2013), NOAA Atlas NESDIS 72, Levitus, S. Ed., Mishonov, A. Technical Ed. Silver Spring, MD, 209; Brandhorst, W., Castello, J.P., Evaluación de los recursos de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita) frente a la Argentina y Uruguay I: las condiciones oceanográficas, sinopsis del conocimiento actual sobre la anchoita y el plan para su evaluación (1971) Proy. Des. Pesq. Ser. Inf. Tec., 29, p. 63
  • Cai, W.J., Estuarine and coastal ocean carbon paradox: CO2 sinks or sites of terrestrial carbon incineration? (2011) Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 3, pp. 123-145
  • Cai, W.J., Wang, Z.A., Wang, Y., The role of marsh-dominated heterotrophic continental margins in transport of CO2 between the atmosphere, the land-sea interface and the ocean (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett., 301, p. 1849
  • Cai, W.J., Dai, M.H., Wang, Y.C., Air–sea exchange of carbon dioxide in ocean margins: a province-based synthesis (2006) Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, p. L12603
  • Carreto, J.I., Benavides, H.R., Negri, R.M., Glorioso, P.D., Toxic red-tide in the Argentine Sea. Phytoplankton distribution and survival of the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax excavate in a frontal area (1986) J. Plankton Res., 8, pp. 15-28
  • Carreto, J.I., Lutz, V.A., Carignan, M.O., Cucchi Colleoni, A.D., De Marco, S.G., Hydrography and chlorophyll a in a transect from the coast to the shelf-break in the Argentinian Sea (1995) Cont. Shelf Res., 15 (2), pp. 315-336
  • Carreto, J.I., Montoya, N.G., Carignan, M.O., Akselman, R., Marcelo Acha, E., Derisio, C., Environmental and biological factors controlling the spring phytoplankton bloom at the Patagonian shelf-break front - Degraded fucoxanthin pigments and the importance of microzooplankton grazing (2016) Progress Oceanogr.
  • Charo, M., Piola, A.R., Hydrographic data from the GEF Patagonia Cruises (2014) Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, pp. 265-271
  • Chen, C.T.A., Andreev, A., Kim, K.R., Yamamoto, M., Roles of continental shelves and marginal seas in the biogeochemical cycles of the North Pacific Ocean (2004) J. Oceanogr., 60, pp. 17-44
  • Chen, C.T.A., Borges, A.V., Reconciling opposing views on carbon cycling in the coastal ocean: continental shelves as sinks and near-shore ecosystems as sources of atmospheric CO2 (2009) Deep-Sea Res. Ii., 56, pp. 578-590
  • Combes, V., Matano, R.P., A two-way nested simulation of the oceanic circulation in the Southwestern Atlantic (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, pp. 731-756
  • Copin-Montégut, G., Chimie de l'Eau de Mer, 319 pp (1996), Inst. Océanogr. de Paris, Paris, France; DeGrandpre, M.D., Olbu, G.J., Beatty, C.M., Hammar, T.R., Air–sea CO2 fluxes on the US Middle Atlantic Bight (2002) Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, pp. 4355-4367
  • Dogliotti, A.I., Lutz, V.A., Segura, V., Estimation of primary production in the southern Argentine continental shelf and shelf-break regions using field and remote sensing data (2014) Remote Sens. Environ., 140, pp. 497-508
  • Evans, W., Mathis, J.T., Cross, J.N., Bates, N.R., Frey, K.E., Else, B.G.T., Papkyriakou, T.N., Takahashi, T., Sea-air CO2 exchange in the western Arctic coastal ocean (2015) Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 29
  • Franco, B.C., Palma, E.D., Combes, V., Lasta, M.L., Physical processes controlling passive larval transport at the Patagonian Shelf Break Front (2017) J. Sea Res.
  • Franco, B.C., Piola, A.R., Rivas, A.L., Baldoni, A., Pisoni, J.P., Multiple thermal fronts near the Patagonian shelf break (2008) Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, p. L02607
  • Frankignoulle, M., Borges, A.V., European continental shelf as a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (2001) Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, pp. 569-576
  • Garcia, V.M.T., Garcia, C.A.E., Mata, M.M., Pollery, R.C., Piola, A., Signorini, S.R., McClain, C.R., Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., Environmental factors controlling the phytoplankton blooms at the Patagonia shelf-break in spring (2008) Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, pp. 1150-1166
  • Glorioso, P.D., Temperature distribution related to shelf-sea fronts on the Patagonian shelf (1987) Cont. Shelf Res., 7 (1), pp. 27-34
  • Gómez, M.I., Piola, A., Kattner, G., Alder, V.A., Biomass of autotrophic dinoflagellates under weak vertical stratification and contrasting chlorophyll levels in subantarctic shelf waters (2011) J. Plankton Res., 33 (8), pp. 1304-1310
  • Guo, X.-H., Zhai, W.-D., Dai, M.-H., Zhang, C., Bai, Y., Xu, Y., Li, Q., Wang, G.-Z., Air–sea CO2 fluxes in the East China Sea based on multiple-year underway observations (2015) Biogeosciences, 12, pp. 5495-5514
  • Holm-Hansen, O., Lorenzen, C.J., Holmes, R.W., Strickland, J.D.H., Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll (1965) J. Cons., 30 (1), pp. 3-15
  • Ito, R.G., Schneider, B., Thomas, H., Distribution of surface fCO2 and air–sea fluxes in the South western subtropical Atlantic and adjacent continental shelf (2005) J. Mar. Syst., 56, pp. 227-242
  • Jiang, L.-Q., Cai, W.-J., Wanninkhof, R., Wang, Y., Lüger, H., Air–sea CO2 fluxes on the U.S. South Atlantic Bight: spatial and seasonal variability (2008) J. Geophys. Res., 113, p. C07019
  • Kahl, L.C., Balance y variabilidad del CO2 en el Mar Patagónico (2013), p. 115. , (Thesis) Universidad de Buenos Aires Argentina; Kim, D., Choi, S.H., Shim, J., Kim, K.H., Kim, C.H., Revisiting the seasonal variations of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the northern East China Sea (2013) Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 24, pp. 409-419
  • Laruelle, G.G., Lauerwald, R., Pfeil, B., Regnier, P., Regionalized global budget of the CO2 exchange at the air-water interface in continental shelf seas (2014) Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 28, pp. 1199-1214
  • Le Quéré, C., Andrew, R.M., Canadell, J.G., Sitch, S., Korsbakken, J.I., Peters, G.P., Manning, A.C., Zaehle, S., Global Carbon Budget 2016 (2016) Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, pp. 605-649
  • Lucas, A.J., Guerrero, R.A., Mianzan, M.W., Acha, E.M., Lasta, C.A., Coastal oceanographic regimes of the Northern Argentine Continental Shelf (34–43°S) (2005) Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 65, pp. 405-420
  • Lutz, V.A., Segura, V., Dogliotti, A.I., Gagliardini, D.A., Bianchi, A.A., Balestrini, C.F., Primary production in the Argentine Sea during spring estimated by field and satellite models (2010) J. Plankton Res., 32, pp. 181-195
  • Marrari, M., Signorini, S.R., Mc Clain, C.R., Pájaro, M., Martos, P., Viñas, M.D., Hansen, J., Buratti, C., Reproductive success of the Argentine anchovy, Engraulis anchita, in relation to environmental variability at a mid-shelf front (Southwestern Atlantic Ocean) (2013) Fish. Oceanogr., 22, pp. 247-261
  • Matano, R.P., Combes, V., Piola, A.R., Guerrero, R., Palma, E.D., Ted Strub, P., James, C., Saraceno, M., The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchangesin the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: numerical simulations (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, pp. 7949-7968
  • Matano, R.P., Palma, E.D., On the upwelling of downwelling currents (2008) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38 (11), pp. 2482-2500
  • Mathis, J.T., Cross, J.N., Bates, N.R., Bradley Moran, S., Lomas, M.W., Mordy, C.W., Stabeno, P.J., Seasonal distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and net community production on the Bering Sea shelf (2010) Biogeosciences, 7, pp. 1769-1787
  • Metzl, N., Poisson, A., Louanchi, F., Brunet, C., Schauer, B., Bres, B., Spatio-temporal distributions of sea-air fluxes of CO2 in the Indian and Antarctic oceans: a first step (1995) Tellus B, 47, pp. 56-60
  • Miller, R.N., Matano, R.P., Palma, E.D., Shelf break upwelling induced by alongshore currents: analytical and numerical results (2011) J. Fluid Mech., 686, pp. 239-249
  • Palma, E.D., Matano, R.P., Piola, A.R., A numerical study of the Southwestern Atlantic Shelf circulation: stratified ocean response to local and offshore forcing (2008) J. Geophys. Res., 113, p. C11010
  • Pierrot, D., Lewis, E., Wallace, D.W.R., MS Excel Program Developed for CO2 System Calculations. ORNL/CDIAC-105a (2006), Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Tennessee; Piola, A.R., Rivas, A.L., Corrientes en la plataforma continental, In: El Mar Argentino y sus Recursos Pesqueros, Antecedentes Históricos de las Exploraciones en el Mar y las Características Ambientales (1997), pp. 119-132. , Editorial: E. E. Boschi., 1; Piola, A.R., Möller, O.O., Guerrero, R.A., Campos, E.J., Variability of the subtropical shelf front off eastern South America: winter 2003 and summer 2004 (2008) Cont. Shelf Res., 28, pp. 1639-1648
  • Piola, A.R., Franco, B.C., Palma, E.D., Saraceno, M., Multiple jets in the Malvinas Current (2013) J. Geophys. Res., 118 (4), pp. 2107-2117
  • Podestá, G.P., Brown, O.B., Evans, R.H., The annual cycle of satellite-derived sea surface temperature in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (1991) J. Clim., 4, pp. 457-467
  • Prowe, A.E.F., Thomas, H., Pätsch, J., Kühn, W., Bozec, Y., Schiettecatte, L.S., Borges, A.V., de Baar, H.J.W., Mechanisms controlling the air–sea CO2 flux in the North Sea (2009) Cont. Shelf Res., 29 (15), pp. 1801-1808
  • Rivas, A.L., Current-meter observations in the Argentine Continental Shelf (1997) Cont. Shelf Res., 17 (4), pp. 391-406
  • Rivas, A.L., Spatial and temporal variability of satellite-derived sea surface temperature in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (2010) Cont. Shelf Res., 30 (7), pp. 752-760
  • Rivas, A.L., Piola, A.R., Vertical stratification at the shelf off northern Patagonia (2002) Cont. Shelf Res., 22 (10), pp. 1549-1558
  • Rivas, A.L., Dogliotti, A.I., Gagliardini, D.A., Seasonal variability in satellite-measured surface chlorophyll in the Patagonian Shelf (2006) Cont. Shelf Res., 26 (6), pp. 703-720
  • Rivas, A.L., Pisoni, J.P., Identification, characteristics and seasonal evolution of surface thermal fronts in the Argentinean Continental Shelf (2010) J. Mar. Syst., 79, pp. 134-143
  • Romero, S.I., Piola, A.R., Charo, M., Eiras García, C.A., Chlorophyll a variability off Patagonia based on SeaWiFS data (2006) J. Geophys. Res., 111, p. C05021
  • Rubin, S.I., Processes Controlling the Distribution of Carbon Dioxide and Nutrients in the South Pacific and Southern Oceans (2000), p. 223. , (Ph.D. Thesis) Columbia University New York, NY; Ruiz Etcheverry, L.A., Saraceno, M., Piola, A.R., Strub, P.T., Sea level anomaly on the Patagonian continental shelf: trends, annual patterns and geostrophic flows (2016) J. Geophys. Res.
  • Sabatini, M.E., Ramírez, F.C., Martos, M., Distribution pattern and population structure of Calanus australis Brodsky, 1959 over the southern Patagonian shelf off Argentina in summer (2000) ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, pp. 1856-1866
  • Sabatini, M., Reta, R., Matano, R., Circulation and zooplankton biomass distribution over the southern Patagonian shelf during late summer (2004) Cont. Shelf Res., 24 (12), pp. 1359-1373
  • Sabatini, M.E., Akselman, R., Reta, R., Negri, R.M., Lutz, V.A., Silva, R.I., Segura, V., Antacli, J.C., Spring plankton communities in the southern Patagonian shelf: hydrography, mesozooplankton patterns and trophic relationships (2012) J. Mar. Syst., 94, pp. 33-51
  • Schejter, L., Bremec, C., Akselman, R., Hernandez, D., Spivak, E., Annual feeding cycle of the Patagonian scallop Zigochlamyspatagonica (King and Broderip, 1832) in Recludas bed (39S-55W) (2002) Argent. Sea J. Shellfish Res., 21, pp. 553-559
  • Schloss, I.R., Ferreyra, G.A., Ferrario, M.E., Almandoz, G.O., Codina, R., Bianchi, A.A., Balestrini, C.F., Poisson, A., Role of plankton communities in sea-air differences in pCO2 in the SW Atlantic Ocean (2007) Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 332, pp. 93-106
  • Signorini, S.R., Garcia, V.M.T., Piola, A.R., Evangelista, H., McClain, C.R., Garcia, C.A.E., Mata, M.M., Further studies on the physical and biogeochemical causes for large interannual changes in the Patagonian shelf spring–summer phytoplankton bloom biomass (2009), NASA Technical Memorandum, NASA/TM-2009-214176, Greenbelt, MD, 43; Simpson, J.H., The shelf-sea fronts: implications of their existence and behavior (1981) Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 302, pp. 531-546
  • Song, H., Marshall, J., Follows, M.J., Dutkiewicz, S., Forget, G., Source waters for the highly productive Patagonian shelf in the southwestern Atlantic (2016) J. Mar. Syst., 158, pp. 120-128
  • Strickland, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R., A practical handbook of seaweater analysis, Bull (1972), 167, p. 311. , Fish. Res. Board of Can., Ottawa, Ont., Canada; Strub, P.T., James, C., Combes, V., Matano, R.P., Piola, A.R., Palma, E.D., Saraceno, M., Ruiz-Etcheverry, L.A., Altimeter-derived seasonal circulation on the southwest Atlantic shelf: 278– 438S (2015) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, pp. 3391-3418
  • Takahashi, T., Olafsson, J., Goddard, J., Chipman, D.W., Sutherland, S.C., Seasonal variation of CO2 and nutrients in the high-latitude surface oceans: a comparative study (1993) Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 7, pp. 843-878
  • Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S.C., Sweeney, C., Poisson, A., Metzl, N., Tilbrook, B., Bates, N., Nojiri, Y., Global sea-air CO2 fluxes based on climatological surface ocean pCO2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects (2002) Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, pp. 1601-1622
  • Thomas, H., Bozec, Y., Elkalay, K., De Baar, H.J., Enhanced open ocean storage of CO2 from shelf sea pumping (2004) Science, 304, pp. 1005-1008
  • Tsunogai, S., Watanabe, S., Sato, T., Is there a “continental shelf pump” for the absorption of atmospheric CO2? (1999) Tellus B, 5, pp. 701-712
  • Valla, D., Piola, A.R., Evidence of upwelling events at the northern Patagonian shelf break (2015) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120
  • Volk, T., Hoffert, M.I., (1985), pp. 99-110. , Ocean carbon pumps: Analysis of relative strengths and efficiencies in ocean-driven atmospheric CO2 changes. In: The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present. Geophysical Monograph Vol. 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC; Walsh, J.J., On the Nature of Continental Shelves (1988), p. 520. , Academic San Diego; Wang, S.L., Chen, C.T.A., Hong, G.H., Chung, C.S., Carbon dioxide and related parameters in the East China Sea (2000) Cont. Shelf Res., 20, pp. 525-544
  • Wanninkhof, R., Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean revisited (2014) Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods, 12 (6), pp. 351-362

Citas:

---------- APA ----------
Kahl, L.C., Bianchi, A.A., Osiroff, A.P., Pino, D.R. & Piola, A.R. (2017) . Distribution of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian Sea: Seasonal, biological and thermal effects. Continental Shelf Research, 143, 18-28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.05.011
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Kahl, L.C., Bianchi, A.A., Osiroff, A.P., Pino, D.R., Piola, A.R. "Distribution of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian Sea: Seasonal, biological and thermal effects" . Continental Shelf Research 143 (2017) : 18-28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.05.011
---------- MLA ----------
Kahl, L.C., Bianchi, A.A., Osiroff, A.P., Pino, D.R., Piola, A.R. "Distribution of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian Sea: Seasonal, biological and thermal effects" . Continental Shelf Research, vol. 143, 2017, pp. 18-28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.05.011
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Kahl, L.C., Bianchi, A.A., Osiroff, A.P., Pino, D.R., Piola, A.R. Distribution of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian Sea: Seasonal, biological and thermal effects. Cont. Shelf Res. 2017;143:18-28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.05.011