Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


During the last century, the human-derived impact on freshwater systems has been severe all around the world. Artificial eutrophication has an outstanding relevance in urban aquatic ecosystems and it is recognized as one of the most common problems associated with water deterioration in urban lakes and ponds. Therefore, more studies regarding the trophic interactions and the potential rehabilitation methods should be encouraged. Our aim is to evaluate at a mesocosm scale, a device composed of native aquatic plants, either submerged (SPD) or floating (FPD), including an extra artificial potential refuge (bio balls rolls) for zooplankton as a rehabilitation tool for urban ponds. As regards the impact of the tested devices on water quality variables, FPD provoked a decrease in TP and pH. In turns, SPD maintained the dissolved oxygen concentrations above those registered in FPD. Transparency was significantly higher in the presence of plants at final time. Differences in phytoplankton morpho-functional group diversity and zooplankton functional feeding groups were registered by the end of the experiment. Zooplankton abundance at the artificial refuges was higher than at the water column; a study of the efficiency of the bio balls rolls as potential active/passive refugees is merited. Considering benefits on water quality variables, we suggest that a device combining floating macrophytes plus the bio ball rolls deserves to be further tested at a greater scale in order to be considered as a water rehabilitation tool, including plant harvest. © 2018 Elsevier GmbH


Documento: Artículo
Título:A novel device with macrophytes and bio balls as a rehabilitation tool for small eutrophic urban ponds: a mesocosm approximation
Autor:Fontanarrosa, M.S.; Allende, L.; Rennella, A.M.; Boveri, M.B.; Sinistro, R.
Filiación:Instituto Multidisciplinario sobre Ecosistemas y Desarrollo Sustentable, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires - CIC, Argentina
Instituto del Conurbano, Área Ecología, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Argentina
Sistemas de producción acuática, Departamento de Producción Animal, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución de Buenos Aires, Universidad de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Argentina
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina
Palabras clave:Eutrophication; Experimental mesocosm; Macrophyte; Phytoplankton; Rehabilitation; Zooplankton; eutrophication; macrophyte; mesocosm; phytoplankton; pond; urban area; water quality; zooplankton
Página de inicio:61
Página de fin:72
Título revista:Limnologica
Título revista abreviado:Limnologica


  • Allende, L., Tell, G., Zagarese, H.E., Torremorell, A., Pérez, G., Bustingorry, J., Escaray, R., Izaguirre, I., Phytoplankton and primary production in clear-vegetated, inorganic-turbid and algal-turbid shallow lakes from Pampa Plain (Argentina) (2009) Hydrobiologa, 624, pp. 45-60
  • APHA, American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (2005), American Public Health Association Washington DC; Araújo, F., Becker, V., Attayde, A.L., Shallow lake restoration and water quality management by the combined effects of polyaluminium chloride addition and benthivorous fish removal: a field mesocosm experiment (2016) Hydrobiologia, 778, pp. 243-252
  • Avigliano, L., Vinocur, A., Chaparro, G., Tell, G., Allende, L., Influence of re-flooding on phytoplankton assemblages in a temperate wetland following prolonged drought (2014) J. Limnol., 73, pp. 45-60
  • Balayla, D.J., Moss, B., Relative importance of grazing on algae by plant associated and open-water microcrustacea (Cladocera) (2004) Arch. Hydrobiol., 161, pp. 199-224
  • Barnett, A.J., Finlay, K., Beisner, B., Functional diversity of crustacean zooplankton communities: towards a trait-based classification (2007) Freshw. Biol., 52, pp. 796-813
  • Battistoni, P.A., Crustacea Copepoda (1995) Ecosistemas de aguas continentales. Metodologías para su studio, , E. Lopretto G. Tell Ediciones Sur La plata pp. 953–971
  • Becklioglu, M., Meerhoff, M., Søndergaard, M., Jeppesen, E., Eutrophication and restoration of shallow lakes from a cold temperate to a warm mediterranean and a (sub) tropical climate (2011) Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and Control, , A.A. Ansai G.R. Lanza S.S. Gill W. Rast Springer Netherland pp. 91–108
  • Berasain, G.E., Colautti, D.C., Lenicov, M.R., Velasco, C.A., Variaciones estacionales e históricas de las especies ícticas de la laguna Chascomús (2005) Biología Acuática, 22, pp. 47-58
  • Bonilla, S., Aubriot, L., Soares, M.C.S., González-Piana, M., Fabre, A., Huszar, V.L.M., Lürling, M., Kruk, C., What drives the distribution of the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Planktothrix agardhii and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii? (2012) FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 79, pp. 594-607
  • Brendonck, L., Maes, J., Rommens, W., Nzwirashe, D., Nhiwatiwa, T., Barson, M., Callebaut, V., Marshall, B., The impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in a eutrophic subtropical impoundment (Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe). II. Species diversity (2003) Arch. Hydrobiol., 158, pp. 389-405
  • Brönmark, C., Hansson, L.-A., Environmental issues in lakes and ponds: current state and perspectives (2002) Environ. Conserv., 29, pp. 290-306
  • Brooks, J.L., Dobson, S.I., Predation, body size, and composition of plankton (1965) Science, 150, pp. 28-35
  • Cabrera, A.L., Fabris, H.A., Plantas acuáticas de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Tomo V (2) (1948), Publicaciones Técnicas, Ministerio de Hacienda, Economía y Previsión La Plata; Carpenter, S.R., Kitchell, J.F., Trophic cascade and biomanipulation interface of research and management: a reply to the comment by De Melo et al (1992) Limnol. Oceanogr., 37, pp. 208-213
  • Chaparro, G., Fontanarrosa, M.S., Schiaffino, M.R., de Tezanos Pinto, P., O'Farrell, I., Seasonal-dependence in the responses of biological communities to flood pulses in warm temperate floodplain lakes: implications for the “alternative stable states’’ model (2014) Aquat. Sci., 76, pp. 579-594
  • Chaparro, G., Fontanarrosa, M.S., Cataldo, D., O'Farrell, I., Hydrology driven factors might weaken fish predation effects on zooplankton structure in a vegetated warm temperate floodplain lake (2015) Hydrobiologia, 752, pp. 187-202
  • Chen, K.-N., Bao, C.-H., Zhou, W.-P., Ecological restoration in eutrophic Lake Wuli: a large enclosure experiment (2009) Ecol. Eng., 35, pp. 1646-1655
  • Coetzee, J.A., Hill, M.P., Ruiz-Téllez, T., Starfinger, U., Brunel, S., Monographs on invasive plants in Europe N° 2: Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (2017) Bot. Lett., 164, pp. 303-326
  • Colina, M., Calliari, D., Carballo, C., Kruk, C., A trait-based approach to summarize zooplankton–phytoplankton interactions in freshwaters (2016) Hydrobiologia, 767, pp. 221-233
  • Dawidowicz, P., Prejs, A., Engelmayer, A., Martyniak, A., Kozłowski, J., Kufel, L., Paradowska, M., Hypolimnetic anoxia hampers top–down food-web manipulation in a eutrophic lake (2002) Freshw. Biol., 47, pp. 2401-2409
  • de Tezanos Pinto, P., Allende, L., O'Farrell, I., Influence of free-floating plants on the structure of a natural phytoplankton assemblage: an experimental approach (2007) J. Plankton Res., 29, pp. 47-56
  • Fontanarrosa, M.S., Chaparro, G.N., O'Farrell, I., Temporal and spatial patterns of macroinvertebrates associated with small and medium-sized free-floating plants (2013) Wetlands, 33, pp. 47-63
  • Gelós, M., Teixeira-de Mello, F., Goyenola, G., Iglesias, C., Fosalba, C., García-Rodríguez, F., Pacheco, J.P., Meerhoff, M., Seasonal and diel changes in fish activity and potential cascading effects in subtropical shallow lakes with different water transparency (2010) Hydrobiologia, 646, pp. 173-185
  • Ger, K.A., Urrutia-Cordero, P., Frost, P.C., Hansson, L.-A., Sarnelle, O., Wilson, A.E., Lürling, M., The interaction between cyanobacteria and zooplankton in a more eutrophic world (2016) Harmful Algae, 54, pp. 128-144
  • Gledhill, D.G., James, P., Davies, D.H., Pond density as a determinant of aquatic species richness in an urban landscape (2008) Landsc. Ecol., 23, pp. 1219-1230
  • González Sagrario, M.A., Balseiro, E., Phytoplankton biomass control by zooplankton in a shallow lake of Argentine Pampa (2002) Verh. Internar. Verein. Limnol., 28, pp. 1588-1592
  • González Sagrario, M.A., Balseiro, E., The role of macroinvertebrates and fish in regulating the provision by macrophytes of refugia for zooplankton in a warm temperate shallow lake (2010) Freshw. Biol., 55, pp. 2153-2166
  • Gulati, R.D., von Donk, E., Lakes in the Netherlands, their origin, eutrophication and restoration: state-of-the-art review (2002) Hydrobiologia, 478, pp. 73-106
  • Gulati, R.D., Pires, L.M.D., van Donk, E., Lake restoration studies: failures, bottlenecks and prospects of new ecotechnological measures (2008) Limnologica, 38, pp. 233-247
  • Gulati, R.D., Pires, L.M.D., van Donk, E., Restoration of Freshwater Lakes (2012) Restoration Ecology: The New Frontier, , J. van Andel J. Aronson John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Chichester, UK
  • Harris, J.A., van Diggelen, R., Ecological restoration as a project for global society (2009) Restoration Ecology, , J. van Andel J. Aronson Blackwell Publishing Oxford, UK pp. 3–15
  • Henny, C., Meutia, A.A., Urban lakes in Megacity Jakarta: risk and management plan for future sustainability (2014) Procedia Environ. Sci., 20, pp. 737-746
  • Hong, Y., Burford, M.A., Ralph, P.J., Udy, J.W., Doblin, M.A., The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is facilitated by copepod selective grazing (2013) Harmful Algae, 29, pp. 4-21
  • Iglesias, C., Goyenola, G., Mazzeo, N., Meerhoff, M., Rodo, R., Jeppesen, E., Horizontal dynamics of zooplankton in subtropical Lake Blanca (Uruguay) hosting multiple zooplankton predators and aquatic plant refuges (2007) Hydrobiologia, 584, pp. 179-189
  • Iglesias, C., Mazzeo, N., Meerhoff, M., Lacerot, G., Clemente, J.M., Scasso, F., Paggi, J.C., High predation is of key importance for dominance of small-bodied zooplankton in warm shallow lakes: evidence from lakes, fish exclosures and surface sediments (2011) Hydrobiologia, 667, pp. 133-147
  • Jeppesen, E., Jensen, J.P., Søndergaard, M., Lauridsen, T., Landkildehus, F., Trophic structure, species richness and biodiversity in Danish lakes: changes along a phosphorus gradient (2000) Freshw. Biol., 45, pp. 201-213
  • Jeppesen, E., Søndergaard, M., Mazzeo, N., Meerhoff, M., Branco, C.C., Huszar, V., Scasso, F., Lake restoration and biomanipulation in temperate lakes: relevance for subtropical and tropical lakes (2005) Tropical Eutrophic Lakes: Their Restoration and Management, , M.V. Reddy Science Publishers Enfield pp. 331–359
  • Jeppesen, E., Meerhoff, M., Jacobsen, B.A., Hansen, R.S., Søndergaard, M., Jensen, J.P., Lauridsen, L.T., Mazzeo, N., Restoration of shallow lakes by nutrient control and biomanipulation the successful strategy varies with lake size and climate (2007) Hydrobiologia, 581, pp. 269-285
  • Jeppesen, E., Søndergaard, M., Lauridsen, T.L., Davidson, T.A., Liu, Z.W., Mazzeo, N., Trochine, C., Meerhoff, M., Biomanipulation as a restoration tool to combat eutrophication: recent advances and future challenges (2012) Adv. Ecol. Res., 47, pp. 411-488
  • Jones, R.I., Mixotrophy in planktonic protist: an overview (2000) Freshw. Biol., 45, pp. 219-226
  • José de Paggi, S.B., Devercelli, M., Rojas Molina, F., Zooplankton and their driving factors in a large subtropical river during low water periods (2014) Fund. Appl. Limnol., 184-2, pp. 125-139
  • Jovanović, J., Trbojević, I., Simić, G.S., Popović, S., Predojević, D., Blagojević, A., Karadžić, V., The effect of meteorological and chemical parameters on summer phytoplankton assemblages in an urban recreational lake (2017) Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst., 418, p. 48
  • Kosten, S., Vernooij, M., van Nes, E.H., González Sagrario, M.A., Clevers, J.G.P.W., Scheffer, M., Biomodal transparency as an indicator for alternatives states in South American lakes (2012) Freshw. Biol., 57, pp. 1191-1201
  • Kruk, C., Devercelli, M., Huszar, V.L.M., Hernández, E., Beamud, G., Diaz, M., Silva, L.H.S., Segura, A.M., Classification of Reynolds phytoplankton functional groups using individual traits and machine learning techniques (2017) Freshw. Biol., 62, pp. 1681-1692
  • Lucena-Moya, P., Duggan, I.C., Macrophyte architecture affects the abundance and diversity of littoral microfauna (2011) Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 45, pp. 279-287
  • Mantzouki, E., Visser, P.M., Bormans, M., Ibelings, B.W., Understanding the key ecological traits of cyanobacteria as a basis for their management and control in changing lakes (2016) Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 50, pp. 333-350
  • Marker, A.F.H., Nusch, A., Rai, H., Riemann, B., The measurement of photosynthetic pigments in freshwater and standardization of methods: conclusions and recommendations (1980) Arch. Hydrobiol., 14, pp. 91-106
  • Meerhoff, M., Mazzeo, N., Moss, B., Rodríguez-Gallego, L., The structuring role of free-floating versus submerged plants in a subtropical shallow lake (2003) Aquat. Ecol., 37, pp. 377-391
  • Meerhoff, M., Fosalba, C., Bruzzone, C., Mazzeo, N., Noordoven, W., Jeppesen, E., An experimental study of habitat choice by Daphnia: plants signal danger more than refuge in subtropical lakes (2006) Freshw. Biol., 51, pp. 1320-1330
  • Meerhoff, M., Iglesias, C., Teixeira de Mello, F., Clemente, J.M., Jensen, E., Lauridsen, T.L., Jeppesen, E., Effects of habitat complexity on community structure and predator avoidance behaviour of littoral zooplankton in temperate versus subtropical shallow lakes (2007) Freshw. Biol., 52, pp. 1009-1021
  • Mo, S., Zhang, X., Tang, Y., Liu, Z., Kettridge, N., Effects of snails, submerged plants and their coexistence on eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems (2017) Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst., 418, p. 44
  • Montiel-Martinez, A., Ciros-Pérez, J., Corkidi, G., Littoral zooplankton–water hyacinth interactions: habitat or refuge? (2015) Hydrobiologia, 755, pp. 173-182
  • Paerl, H.W., Growth and reproductive strategies of freshwater blue-green algae (1988) Growth and Reproductive Strategies of Freshwater Phytoplankton, , C.D. Sandgren Cambridge University Press Cambridge pp. 261–315
  • Paggi, J.C., Crustacea Cladocera (1995) Ecosistemas de aguas continentales. Metodologías para su studio, , E. Lopretto G. Tell Ediciones Sur La plata pp. 953–971
  • Paggi, J.C., Mendoza, R.O., Debonis, C.J., José de Paggi, S.B., A simple and inexpensive trap-tube sampler for zooplankton collection in shallow waters (2001) Hydrobiologia, 464, pp. 45-49
  • Peretyatko, A., Teissier, S., De Backer, S., Triest, L., Assessment of the risk of cyanobacterial bloom occurrence in urban ponds: probabilistic approach (2010) Ann. Limnol. – Int. J. Limnol., 146, pp. 121-133
  • Peretyatko, A., Teissier, S., De Backer, S., Triest, L., Biomanipulation of hypereutrophic ponds: when it works and why it fails (2012) Environ. Monit. Assess., 184, pp. 1517-1531
  • Qiu, D., Wu, Z., Liu, B., Deng, J., Fu, G., He, F., The restoration of aquatic macrophytes for improving water quality in a hypertrophic shallow lake in Hubei Province, China (2001) Ecol. Eng., 18, pp. 147-156
  • Reynolds, C.S., The Ecology of Freshwater Phytoplankton (1984), Cambridge University Press New York; Reynolds, C.S., Variability in the provision and function of mucilage in phytoplankton: facultative responses to the environment (2007) Hydrobiologia, 578, pp. 37-45
  • Reynolds, C.S., Huszar, V., Kruk, V., Naselli-Flores, L., Melo, S., Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton (2002) J. Plankton Res., 24, pp. 417-428
  • Rodrigo, M.A., Rojo, C., Alonso-Guillén, J.L., Vera, P., Restoration of two small Mediterranean lagoons: the dynamics of submerged macrophytes and factors that affect the success of revegetation (2013) Ecol. Eng., 54, pp. 1-15
  • Rodriguez-Flores, C., Estructura y dinámica del fitoplancton de tres estanques urbanos de la ciudad de Buenos Aires: análisis de floraciones en época estival (2014–2015) (2017), Tesis presentada para optar al título de Magíster de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en Ciencias Ambientales; Rodríguez-Gallego, L.R., Mazzeo, N., Gorga, J., Meerhoff, M., Clemente, J., Kruk, C., Scasso, F., Quintans, F., The effects of an artificial wetland dominated by free-floating plants on the restoration of a subtropical, hypertrophic lake (2004) Lakes Reserve Res. Manage., 9, pp. 203-215
  • Rosso, J.J., Relación entre la abundancia y estructura de la comunidad de peces y el régimen hidrológico, en lagunas de la alta cuenca del río Salado (2008), Doctoral dissertation Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía; Salmaso, N., Padisak, J., Morpho-functional groups and phytoplankton development in two deep lakes (Lake Garda, Italy and Lake Stechlin, Germany) (2007) Hydrobiologia, 578, pp. 97-112
  • Salmaso, N., Naselli-Flores, L., Padisák, J., Functional classifications and their application in phytoplankton ecology (2015) Freshw. Biol., 60, pp. 603-619
  • Scasso, F., Mazzeo, N., Gorga, J., Kruk, C., Lacerot, G., Clemente, J., Fabián, D., Bonilla, S., Limnological changes in a sub-tropical shallow hypertrophic lake during its restoration: two years of a whole-lake experiment (2001) Aquat. Conserv.: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst., 11, pp. 31-44
  • Scheffer, M., Hosper, S.H., Meijer, M.L., Moss, B., Jeppesen, E., Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes (1993) Trends Ecol. Evol. (Amst.), 8, pp. 275-279
  • Scheffer, M., Szabó, S., Gragnani, A., van Nes, E., Rinaldi, S., Lautsky, N., Norberg, J., Franden, R., Floating plant dominance as a stable state (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 100, pp. 4040-4045
  • Schueler, T., Simpson, J., Introduction: why urban lakes are different. urban lake management (2001) Watershed Prot. Tech., 3, pp. 747-750
  • Sinistro, R., Izaguirre, I., Asikian, V., Experimental study on the microbial plankton community in a South American wetland (Lower Paraná River Basin), and the effect of the light deficiency due to floating macrophytes (2007) J. Plankton Res., 28, pp. 753-768
  • Song, X., Zhengwen, L., Guijun, Y., Yuwei, C., Effects of resuspension and eutrophication level on summer phytoplankton dynamics in two hypertrophic areas of Lake Taihu, China (2010) Aquat. Ecol., 44, pp. 41-54
  • Stoianov, I., Chapra, S., Maksimovic, C., A framework linking urban park land use with pond water quality (2000) Urban Water, 2, pp. 47-62
  • Teixeira de Mello, F., Meerhoff, M., Pekcan-Hekim, A., Jeppesen, E., Substantial differences in littoral fish community structure and dynamics in subtropical and temperate shallow lakes (2009) Freshw. Biol., 54, pp. 1202-1215
  • Tell, H.G., Allende, L., Izaguirre, I., Ecological and taxonomical remarks on planktic Cyanoprokaryota from Argentinean temperate shallow lakes (2008) Algol. Stud., 127, pp. 15-28
  • Tell, G., Izaguirre, I., Allende, L., Diversity and geographic distribution of Chlorococcales (Chlorophyceae) in contrasting lakes along a latitudinal transect in Argentinean Patagonia (2011) Biodivers. Conserv., 20, pp. 703-727
  • Thomaz, S.M., Ribeiro da Cunha, E., The role of macrophytes in habitat structuring in aquatic ecosystems: methods of measurement, causes and consequences on animal assemblages’ composition and biodiversity (2010) Acta Limnol. Bras., 22, pp. 218-236
  • Thomaz, S.M., Dibble, E.D., Evangelista, L.R., Higuti, J., Bini, L.M., Influence of aquatic macrophyte habitat complexity on invertebrate abundance and richness in tropical lagoons (2008) Freshw. Biol., 53, pp. 358-367
  • Tolotti, M., Thies, H., Nickus, U., Psenner, R., Temperature modulated effects of nutrients on phytoplankton changes in a mountain lake (2012) Hydrobiologia, 698, pp. 61-75
  • Toporowska, M., Pawlik-Skowrońska, B., Four-year study on phytoplankton biodiversity in a small hypertrophic lake affected by water blooms of toxigenic cyanobacteria (2014) Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 23, pp. 491-499
  • Triest, L., Stiers, I., Van Onsem, S., Biomanipulation as a nature-based solution to reduce cyanobacterial blooms (2016) Aquat. Ecol., 50, pp. 461-483
  • Unrein, F., Massana, R., Alonso-Sáez, L., Gasol, J.M., Significant year-round effect of small mixotrophic flagellates on bacterioplankton in an oligotrophic coastal system (2007) Limnol. Oceanogr., 52, pp. 456-469
  • Utermöhl, M., Zur Vervollkomnung der quantitativen Phytoplankton-Methodik. (For the perfection of quantitative phytoplankton methodology). Mitteilungen. Communications (1958) Int. Ver. Theor. Ang. Limnol., 9, pp. 1-38
  • Van Onsem, S., de Backer, S., Triest, L., Microhabitat-zooplankton relationship in extensive macrophyte of eutrophic clear-water ponds (2010) Hydrobiologia, 656, pp. 67-81
  • Vanderstukken, M., Declerck, S.A.J., Pals, A., de Meester, L., Muylaert, K., The influence of plant-associated filter feeders on phytoplankton biomass: a mesocosm study (2010) Hydrobiologia, 646, pp. 199-208
  • Vanderstukken, M., Mazzeo, N., Van Colen, W., Declerck, S., Muylaert, K., Biological control of phytoplankton by the subtropical submerged macrophytes Egeria densa and Potamogeton illinoensis: a mesocosm study (2011) Freshw. Biol., 56, pp. 1837-1849
  • Venrick, E.L., How many cells to count? (1978) Phytoplankton Manual, , A. Sournia UNESCO Paris pp. 167–180
  • Waajen, G.W.A.M., Eco-engineering for Clarity. Clearing Blue-green Ponds and Lakes in an Urbanized Area (2017), PhD thesis Wageningen University the Netherlands; Waajen, G.W.A.M., Faasen, E.J., Lürling, M., Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples (2014) Environ. Sc. Pollut. Res., 21, pp. 9983-9994
  • Whitton, B.A.J., Potts, M., Introduction to the cyanobacteria (2000) The Ecology of Cyanobacteria. Their Diversity in Time and Space, , B.A. Whitton M. Potts Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht, London, Boston pp. 1–11
  • WWAP, World Water Assessment Programme, The United Nations World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk (2012), UNESCO Paris; Xiangcan, J., Analysis of eutrophication state and trend for lakes in China (2003) J. Limnol., 62, pp. 60-66
  • Xu, F.-L., Tao, S., Xu, Z.-R., The restoration of riparian wetlands and macrophytes in Lake Chao, an eutrophic Chinese lake: possibilities and effects (1999) Hydrobiologia, 405, pp. 169-178
  • Ye, L., Chang, C.-Y., García-Comas, C., Gong, G.-C., Hsieh, C.-H., Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton through diet niche partitioning (2013) J. Anim. Ecol., 82, pp. 1052-1061


---------- APA ----------
Fontanarrosa, M.S., Allende, L., Rennella, A.M., Boveri, M.B. & Sinistro, R. (2019) . A novel device with macrophytes and bio balls as a rehabilitation tool for small eutrophic urban ponds: a mesocosm approximation. Limnologica, 74, 61-72.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Fontanarrosa, M.S., Allende, L., Rennella, A.M., Boveri, M.B., Sinistro, R. "A novel device with macrophytes and bio balls as a rehabilitation tool for small eutrophic urban ponds: a mesocosm approximation" . Limnologica 74 (2019) : 61-72.
---------- MLA ----------
Fontanarrosa, M.S., Allende, L., Rennella, A.M., Boveri, M.B., Sinistro, R. "A novel device with macrophytes and bio balls as a rehabilitation tool for small eutrophic urban ponds: a mesocosm approximation" . Limnologica, vol. 74, 2019, pp. 61-72.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Fontanarrosa, M.S., Allende, L., Rennella, A.M., Boveri, M.B., Sinistro, R. A novel device with macrophytes and bio balls as a rehabilitation tool for small eutrophic urban ponds: a mesocosm approximation. Limnologica. 2019;74:61-72.