Dorelle, L.S.; Da Cuña, R.H.; Rey Vázquez, G.; Höcht, C.; Shimizu, A.; Genovese, G.; Lo Nostro, F.L."The SSRI fluoxetine exhibits mild effects on the reproductive axis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Cichliformes)" (2017) Chemosphere. 171:370-378
Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


Among the wide variety of pharmaceuticals released into the environment, Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is one of the most prescribed for the treatment of major depression. It inhibits serotonin (5-HT) reuptake at the presinaptic membrane, increasing serotonergic activity. In vertebrates, including fish, the serotonergic system is closely related to the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal (HPG) axis which regulates reproduction. As FLX can act as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) by affecting several reproductive parameters in fish, the aim of this study was to provide an integral assessment of the potential effect of FLX on the reproductive axis of the Neotropical freshwater fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Adult fish were intraperitoneally injected with 2 μg g−1FLX or saline every third day for 15 days. No significant differences were found on serotonergic turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT ratio). Pituitary βLH content in FLX injected females was significantly higher than control females; no significant differences were seen for βFSH content. Sex steroids remained unaltered, both in males and females fish, after FLX treatment. No plasma vitellogenin was induced in treated males. Some alterations were seen in testes of FLX injected males, such as the presence of foam cells and an acidophilic PAS positive, Alcian-Blue negative secretion in the lobular lumen. Although there is no clear consensus about the effect of this drug on reproductive physiology, these results indicate that FLX is acting as a mild EDC in adults of C. dimerus. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Documento: Artículo
Título:The SSRI fluoxetine exhibits mild effects on the reproductive axis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Cichliformes)
Autor:Dorelle, L.S.; Da Cuña, R.H.; Rey Vázquez, G.; Höcht, C.; Shimizu, A.; Genovese, G.; Lo Nostro, F.L.
Filiación:Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología Acuática, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires & Instituto de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental y Aplicada IBBEA, CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires, C1428EGA, Argentina
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos (UBA), Buenos Aires, C1113AAD, Argentina
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Kanazawa, Yokohama, 236-8648, Japan
Palabras clave:Contaminants of emerging concern; Endocrine disruption; Gonadotrophins; Pharmaceuticals; Reproduction; Serotonin; Controlled drug delivery; Drug products; Fish; Physiology; Contaminants of emerging concerns; Endocrine disruption; Gonadotrophins; Reproduction; Serotonin; Endocrine disrupters; alcian blue; estradiol; fluoxetine; follitropin beta subunit; luteinizing hormone beta subunit; sodium chloride; testosterone; vitellogenin; endocrine disruptor; fluoxetine; serotonin uptake inhibitor; steroid; water pollutant; chemical compound; cichlid; drug; endocrine disruptor; hormone; inhibitor; physiology; pollutant; protein; reproduction; steroid; adult; animal experiment; animal tissue; Article; Cichlasoma dimerus; cichlid; controlled study; estradiol blood level; female; foam cell; follitropin blood level; hypophysis; luteinizing hormone blood level; male; Neotropics; nonhuman; ovary tissue; reproduction; reproductive toxicity; serotoninergic system; testosterone blood level; animal; cichlid; drug effects; ecotoxicology; metabolism; physiology; reproduction; toxicity; water pollutant; Cichlasoma; Cichlidae; Teleostei; Vertebrata; Animals; Cichlids; Ecotoxicology; Endocrine Disruptors; Female; Fluoxetine; Male; Pituitary Gland; Reproduction; Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; Steroids; Water Pollutants, Chemical
Página de inicio:370
Página de fin:378
Título revista:Chemosphere
Título revista abreviado:Chemosphere
CAS:alcian blue, 12040-44-7; estradiol, 50-28-2; fluoxetine, 54910-89-3, 56296-78-7, 59333-67-4; sodium chloride, 7647-14-5; testosterone, 58-22-0; Endocrine Disruptors; Fluoxetine; Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; Steroids; Water Pollutants, Chemical


  • Altamura, A.C., Moro, A.R., Percudani, M., Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine (1994) Clin. Pharmacokinet., 26, pp. 201-214
  • Ansai, S., Hosokawa, H., Maegawa, S., Kinoshita, M., Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces anxiolytic responses and altered social behaviors in medaka, Oryzias latipes (2016) Behav. Brain Res., 303, pp. 126-136
  • Bain, P.A., Basheer, V.S., Greeg, A., Kumar, A., In vitro nuclear receptor activity and in vivo gene expression analysis in Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) after short-term exposure to fluoxetine (2016) Comp. Biochem. Phys. C, 188, pp. 1-8
  • Barry, M.J., Effects of fluoxetine on the swimming and behavioral responses of the Arabian killifish (2013) Ecotoxicology, 22, pp. 425-432
  • Bhattarai, J.P., Roa, J., Herbison, A.E., Han, S.K., Serotonin acts through 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors to exert biphasic actions on GnRH neuron excitability in the mouse (2013) Endocrinology, 155, pp. 513-524
  • Blair, B.D., Crago, J.P., Hedman, C.J., Klaper, R.D., Pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in the Great Lakes above concentrations of environmental concern (2013) Chemosphere, 93, pp. 2116-2123
  • Brooks, B.W., Foran, C.M., Richards, S.M., Weston, J., Turner, P.K., Stanley, J.K., Solomon, K.R., LaPoint, T.W., Aquatic ecotoxicology of fluoxetine (2003) Toxicol. Lett., 142, pp. 169-183
  • Burt, C.W., McCaig, L.F., Rechtsteiner, E.A., Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization Estimates for 2005. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 388 (2007), p. 16. , National Center for Health Statistics Hyattsville, MD; Bymaster, F.P., Zhang, W., Carter, P.A., Shaw, J., Chernet, E., Phebus, L., Wong, D.T., Perry, K.W., Fluoxetine, but not other selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, increases norepinephrine and dopamine extracellular levels in prefrontal cortex (2002) Psychopharmacology, 160, pp. 353-361
  • Chaves-Pozo, E., Pelegrín, P., Mulero, V., Meseguer, J., García Ayala, A., A role for acidophilic granulocytes in the testis of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., Teleostei) (2003) J. Endocrinol., 179, pp. 165-174
  • Clotfelter, E.D., O'Hare, E.P., McNitt, M.M., Carpenter, R.E., Summers, C.H., Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens (2007) Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 87, pp. 222-231
  • Da Cuña, R., Pandolfi, M., Genovese, G., Piazza, Y., Ansaldo, M., Lo Nostro, F.L., Endocrine disruptive potential of endosulfan on the reproductive axis of Cichlasoma dimerus (Perciformes, Cichlidae) (2013) Aquat. Toxicol., 126, pp. 299-305
  • Da Cuña, R., Rey Vázquez, G., Dorelle, L., Rodriguez, E., Guimarães Moreira, R., Lo Nostro, F., Mechanism of action of endosulfan on gonadal steroidogenesis disruption in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (2016) Comp. Biochem. Phys. C, 187, pp. 74-80
  • Dahlbom, S.J., Backström, T., Lundstedt-Enkel, K., Winberg, S., Aggression and monoamines: effects of sex and social rank in zebrafish (Danio rerio) (2012) Behav. Brain Res., 228, pp. 333-338
  • Dzieweczynski, T.L., Hebert, O.L., Fluoxetine alters behavioral consistency of aggression and courtship in male Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens (2012) Physiol. Behav., 107, pp. 92-97
  • Ekström, P., Van Veen, T., Distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) in the brain of the teleost Gasterosteus aculeatus L (1984) J. Comp. Neurol., 226, pp. 307-320
  • Foran, C.M., Weston, J., Slattery, M., Brooks, B.W., Huggett, D.B., Reproductive assessment of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) following a four week fluoxetine (SSRI) exposure (2004) Arch. Environ. Con. Tox, 46, pp. 511-517
  • Frazer, A., Henzler, J.G., Ch. 13: Serotonin involvement in physiological function and behavior (1999) Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, p. 1183. , G.J. Siegel B.W. Agranoff R.W. Albers S.K. Fisher M.D. Uhler sixth ed. Lippincott-Raven Williams & Wilkins Philadelphia ISBN-10: 0-397-51820-X
  • Fuller, R.W., Perry, K.W., Molloy, B.B., Effect of an uptake inhibitor on serotonin metabolism in rat brain: studies with 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-n-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (Lilly 110140) (1974) Life Sci., 15, pp. 1161-1171
  • Gaworecki, K.M., Klaine, S.J., Behavioral and biochemical responses of hybrid striped bass during and after fluoxetine exposure (2008) Aquat. Toxicol., 88, pp. 175-185
  • Genovese, G., Da Cuña, R.H., Towle, D.W., Maggese, M.C., Lo Nostro, F.L., Early expression of zona pellucida proteins under octylphenol exposure in Cichlasoma dimerus (Perciformes, Cichlidae) (2011) Aquat. Toxicol., 101, pp. 175-185
  • Genovese, G., Regueira, M., Piazza, Y., Towle, D., Maggese, M.C., Lo Nostro, F.L., Time-course recovery of estrogen-responsive genes of a cichlid fish exposed to waterborne octylphenol (2012) Aquat. Toxicol., 114-115, pp. 1-13
  • Genovese, G., Regueira, M., Da Cuña, R.H., Ferreira, M.F., Varela, M.L., Lo Nostro, F.L., Nonmonotonic response of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α gene expression after octylphenol exposure of Cichlasoma dimerus (Perciformes, Cichlidae) (2014) Aquat. Toxicol., 156, pp. 30-40
  • Grier, H.J., Uribe, M.C., Lo Nostro, F.L., Mims, S.D., Parenti, L.R., Conserved form and function of the germinal epithelium through 500 million years of vertebrate evolution (2016) J. Morphol., 277, pp. 1014-1044
  • Hachfi, L., Couvray, S., Simide, R., Tarnowska, K., Pierre, S., Gaillard, S., Richard, S., Prévot-D'Alvise, N., Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals [EDCs] on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad-liver [HPGL] axis in fish (2012) World J. Fish Mar. Sci., 4, pp. 14-30
  • Henry, T.B., Black, M.C., Acute and chronic toxicity of fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) in Western mosquitofish (2008) Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 54, pp. 325-330
  • Herve, D., Pickel, V.M., Joh, T.H., Beaudet, A., Serotonin axon terminals in the ventral tegmental area of the rat: fine structure and synaptic input to dopaminergic neurons (1987) Brain Res., 435, pp. 71-83
  • Huggett, D.B., Cook, J.C., Ericson, J.E., Williams, R.T.A., Theoretical model for utilizing mammalian pharmacology and safety data to prioritise potential impacts of human pharmaceuticals to fish (2003) J. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess., 9, pp. 1789-1799
  • IRAM, Calidad Ambiental, Calidad Del Agua. Determinación De La Toxicidad Letal Aguda De Sustancias En Peces De Agua Dulce. Método Semiestático (2008), IRAM 29112:2008; Kania, B.F., Gralak, M.A., Wielgosz, M., Four-week fluoxetine (SSRI) exposure diminishes aggressive behaviour of male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) (2012) Behav. Brain Sci., 2, pp. 185-190
  • Karami, A., Christianus, A., Zokaeifar, H., Saad, K.Z., Imraan, F.T.J., Shakibazadeh, S., Negarestan, H., Courtenay, S.C., Ovaprim treatment promotes oocyte development and milt fertilization rate in diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (2011) Aquacult. Int., 19, pp. 1025-1034
  • Khan, I.A., Thomas, P., Immunocytochemical localization of serotonin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain and pituitary gland of the Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus (1993) Gen. Comp. Endocr., 91, pp. 167-180
  • Koch, S., Perry, K.W., Nelson, D.L., Conway, R.G., Threlkeld, P.G., Bymaster, F.P., R-fluoxetine increases extracellular DA, NE, as well as 5-HT in rat prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus: an in vivo microdialysis and receptor binding study (2002) Neuropsychopharmacol, 27, pp. 949-959
  • Kum, C., Sekkin, S., The immune system drugs in fish: immune function, immunoassay, drugs (2011) Recent Advances in Fish Farms, p. 250. , Faruk Aral InTech ISBN: 978-953-307-759-8
  • Lam, D.D., Heisler, L.K., Serotonin and energy balance: molecular mechanisms and implications for type 2 diabetes (2007) Expert. Rev. Mol. Med., 9, pp. 1-24
  • Lillesaar, C., The serotonergic system in fish (2011) J. Chem. Neuroanat., 41, pp. 294-308
  • Lillesaar, C., Stigloher, C., Tannhaüser, B., Wullimann, M.F., Bally-Cuif, L., Axonal projections originating from raphe serotonergic neurons in the developing and adult zebrafish Danio rerio, using transgenics to visualize raphespecific pet1 expression (2009) J. Comp. Neurol., 512, pp. 158-182
  • Lister, A., Regan, C., Van Zwol, J., Van Der Kraak, G., Inhibition of egg production in zebrafish by fluoxetine and municipal effluents: a mechanistic evaluation (2009) Aquat. Toxicol., 95, pp. 320-329
  • Lo Nostro, F., Antoneli, F., Quagio-Grassiotto, I., Guerrero, G., Testicular interstitial cells, and steroidogenic detection in the protogynous fish, Synbranchus marmoratus (Teleostei, Synbranchidae) (2004) Tissue Cell, 36, pp. 221-231
  • Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J., Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent (1951) J. Biol. Chem., 193, pp. 265-275
  • Malagié, I., Trillat, A.C., Jacquot, C., Gardier, A.M., Effects of acute fluoxetine on extracellular serotonin levels in the raphe: an in vivo microdialysis study (1995) Eur. J. Pharmacol., 286, pp. 213-217
  • Margiotta-Casaluci, L., Owen, S.F., Cumming, R.I., de Polo, A., Winter, M.J., Panter, G.H., Rand-Weaver, M., Sumpter, J.P., Quantitative cross-species extrapolation between humans and fish: the case of the anti-depressant fluoxetine (2014) PLoS One, 9, p. e110467
  • Martín-García, E., Darbra, S., Pallarès, M., Implicación de los neuroesteroides en la conducta normal y patológica (2007) Rev. Neurol., 44, pp. 661-676
  • Maruska, K.P., Fernald, R.D., Social regulation of male reproductive plasticity in an African cichlid fish (2013) Integr. Comp. Biol., 53, pp. 938-950
  • McDonald, M.D., Gonzalez, A., Sloman, K.A., Higher levels of aggression are observed in socially dominant toadfish treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (2011) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, 153, pp. 107-112
  • Meijide, F., Rey Vázquez, G., Piazza, Y., Babay, P., Itria, R., Lo Nostro, F., Effects of waterborne exposure to 17β-estradiol and 4-tert-octylphenol on early life stages of the South American cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (2016) Ecotox. Environ. Saf., 124, pp. 82-90
  • Mennigen, J.A., Martyniuk, C.J., Crump, K., Xiong, H., Zhao, E., Popesku, J., Anisman, H., Trudeau, V.L., Effects of fluoxetine on the reproductive axis of female goldfish (Carassius auratus) (2008) Physiol. Genomics, 35, pp. 273-282
  • Mennigen, J.A., Lado, W.E.E.L., Zamora, J.M., Duarte-Guterman, P., Langlois, V.S., Metcalfe, C.D., Chang, J.P., Trudeau, V.L., Waterborne fluoxetine disrupts the reproductive axis in sexually mature male goldfish, Carassius auratus (2010) Aquat. Toxicol., 100, pp. 354-364
  • Moffat, A.C., Osselton, M.D., Widdop, B., (2011) Clarke's Analysis of Drugs and Poisons in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids, and Postmortem Materials, , fourth ed. Pharmaceutical Press London, U.K
  • Moncaut, N., Lo Nostro, F.L., Maggese, M.C., Vitellogenin detection in surface mucus of the southamerican cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Heckel, 1840) induced by estradiol-17β. Effects on liver and gonads (2003) Aquat. Toxicol., 63, pp. 127-137
  • Morandini, L., Ramallo, M.R., Guimarães Moreira, R., Höcht, C., Somoza, G.M., Silva, A., Pandolfi, M., Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet (2015) Gen. Comp. Endocr., 223, pp. 27-37
  • Morando, M.B., Medeiros, L.R., McDonald, M.D., Fluoxetine treatment affects nitrogen waste excretion and osmoregulation in a marine teleost fish (2009) Aquat. Toxicol., 95, pp. 164-171
  • Mössner, R., Lesch, K.P., Role of serotonin in the immune system and in Neuroimmune interactions (1998) Brain Behav. Immun., 12, pp. 249-271
  • National Research Council (US), Guide for The Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (2011),, eighth ed. National Academies Press (US) Available from Washington; Nedergaard, O.A., Catecholamines: regulation, release and inactivation (1988) Pharmacol. Toxicol., 63, pp. 5-8
  • Nelson, J., Grande, T., Wilson, M., Fishes of The World (2016), p. 752. , fifth ed. Wiley ISBN: 978-1-118-34233-6; Norton, W.H., Folchert, A., Bally-Cuif, L., Comparative analysis of serotonin receptor (HTR1A/HTR1B families) and transporter (slc6a4a/b) gene expression in the zebrafish brain (2008) J. Comp. Neurol., 511, pp. 521-542
  • Painter, M.M., Buerkley, M.A., Julius, M.L., Vajda, A.M., Norris, D.O., Barber, L.B., Furlong, E.T., Schoenfuss, H.L., Antidepressants at environ mentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (2009) Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 28, pp. 2677-2684
  • Pandolfi, M., Lo Nostro, F.L., Shimizu, A., Pozzi, A.G., Meijide, F.J., Rey Vazquez, G., Maggese, M.C., Identification of immunoreactive FSH and LH cells in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus during the ontogeny and sexual differentiation (2006) Anat. Embryol., 211, pp. 355-365
  • Panlilio, J.M., Marin, S., Lobl, M.B., McDonald, M.D., Treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, attenuates the fish hypoxia response (2016) Sci. Rep., 6, p. 31148
  • Parenti, L.R., Grier, H.J., Evolution and phylogeny of gonad morphology in bony fishes (2004) Integr. Comp. Biol., 44, pp. 333-348
  • Piazza, Y., Pandolfi, M., Da Cuña, R., Genovese, G., Lo Nostro, F., Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the Perciform Cichlasoma dimerus (2015) Ecotox. Environ. Saf., 116-115, pp. 150-159
  • Porcelli, S., Drago, A., Fabbri, C., Serretti, A., Mechanisms of antidepressant action: an integrated dopaminergic perspective (2011) Prog. Neuro-Psychoph, 35, pp. 1532-1543
  • Prasad, P., Ogawa, S., Parhar, I.S., Role of serotonin in fish reproduction (2015) Front. Neurosci., 9, pp. 1-9
  • Ramallo, M.R., Morandini, L., Alonso, F., Birba, A., Tubert, C., Fiszbein, A., Pandolfi, M., The endocrine regulation of cichlids social and reproductive behavior through the eyes of the chanchita, Cichlasoma dimerus (Percomorpha: Cichlidae) (2014) J. Physiol-Paris, 108, pp. 194-202
  • Rand-Weaver, M., Margiotta-Casaluci, L., Patel, A., Panter, G.H., Owen, S.F., Sumpter, J.P., The Read-across hypothesis and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, pp. 11384-11395
  • Rehman, M.S.U., Rashid, N., Asffaq, M., Saif, A., Ahmad, N., Han, J.I., Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries (2015) Chemosphere, 138, pp. 1045-1055
  • Rey Vázquez, G., Meijide, F.J., Da Cuña, R.H., Lo Nostro, F.L., Piazza, Y.G., Babay, P.A., Trudeau, V.L., Guerrero, G.A., Exposure to waterborne 4-tert-octylphenol induces vitellogenin synthesis and disrupts testis morphology in the South American freshwater fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes) (2009) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, 150, pp. 298-306
  • Rey Vázquez, G., Meijide, F., Lo Nostro, F., Recovery of male reproductive capability following exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol in the Neotropical cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (2016) B. Environ. Contam. Tox, 96, pp. 585-590
  • Sauvé, S., Desrosiers, M., A review of what is an emerging contaminant (2014) Chem. Cent. J., 8, p. 15
  • Schultz, M.M., Painter, M.M., Bartell, S.E., Logue, A., Furlong, E.T., Werner, S.L., Schoenfuss, H.L., Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows (2011) Aquat. Toxicol., 104, pp. 38-47
  • Schulz, M., Schmoldt, A., Therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations of more than 800 drugs and other xenobiotics (2003) Pharmazie, 58, pp. 447-474
  • Schulz, R.W., de Franca, L.R., Lareyre, J.J., LeGac, F., Chiarini-Garcia, H., Nobrega, R.H., Miura, T., Spermatogenesis in fish (2010) Gen. Comp. Endocr., 165, pp. 390-411
  • Segura, P.A., Francois, M., Gagnon, C., Sauve, S., Review of the occurrence of anti-infectives in contaminated wastewaters and natural and drinking Waters (2009) Environ. Health Persp, 117, pp. 675-684
  • Senthilkumaran, B., Okuzawa, K., Gen, K., Kagawa, H., Effects of serotonin, GABA and Neuropeptide Y on seabream gonadotropin releasing hormone release in vitro from preoptic-anterior hypothalamus and pituitary of red seabream, Pagrus major (2001) J. Neuroendocrinol., 13, pp. 395-400
  • Shashkin, P., Dragulev, B., Ley, K., Macrophage differentiation to foam cells (2005) Curr. Pharm. Des., 11, pp. 3061-3072
  • Shimizu, A., Yamashita, M., Purification of mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) gonadotropins and their subunits, using an immunochemical assay with antisera raised against synthetic peptides (2002) Gen. Comp. Endocr., 125, pp. 79-91
  • Shimizu, A., Sakai, T., Nashida, K., Kagawa, H., Universal antisera for immunocytochemical identification of two different gonadotrophs in acanthoptherygian fishes (2003) Fish. Physiol. Biochem., 29, pp. 275-287
  • Somoza, G.M., Peter, R.E., Effects of serotonin on gonadotropin and growth hormone release from in vitro perfused goldfish pituitary fragments (1991) Gen. Comp. Endocr., 82, pp. 103-110
  • Somoza, G.M., Yu, K.L., Peter, R.E., Serotonin stimulates gonadotropin release in female and male goldfish, Carassius auratus L (1988) Gen. Comp. Endocr., 72, pp. 374-382
  • Sumpter, J.P., Donnachie, R.L., Johnson, A.C., The apparently very variable potency of the anti-depressant fluoxetine (2014) Aquat. Toxicol., 151, pp. 57-60
  • Tanoue, R., Nomiyama, K., Nakamura, H., Kim, J.W., Isobe, T., Shinohara, R., Kunisue, T., Tanabe, S., Uptake and tissue distribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wild fish from treated-wastewater-impacted streams (2015) Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, pp. 11649-11658
  • Tops, M., Russo, S., Boksem, M.A., Tucker, D.M., Serotonin: modulator of a drive to withdraw (2009) Brain Cogn., 71, pp. 427-436
  • Valentino, R.J., Commons, K.G., Peptides that fine-tune the serotonin system (2005) Neuropeptides, 39, pp. 1-8
  • Vigh, B., Vigh-Teichmann, I., Actual problems of the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (1998) Microsc. Res. Tech., 41, pp. 57-83
  • Weinberger, J., II, Klaper, R., Environmental concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine impact specific behaviors involved in reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance in the fish Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) (2014) Aquat. Toxicol., 151, pp. 77-83
  • Wen, Z.H., Chen, L., Meng, X.Z., Duan, Y.P., Zhang, Z.S., Zeng, E.Y., Occurrence and human health risk of wastewater–derived pharmaceuticals in a drinking water source for Shanghai (2014) East China. Sci. Total Environ., 490, pp. 987-993
  • Winberg, S., Winberg, Y., Fernald, R.D., Effect of social rank on brain monoaminergic activity in a cichlid fish (1997) Brain Behav. Evol., 49, pp. 230-236
  • Winder, V.L., Pennington, P.L., Hurd, M.W., Wirth, E.F., Fluoxetine effects on sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) locomotor activity (2012) J. Environ. Sci. Health B, 47, pp. 51-58
  • Wong, D.T., Bymaster, F.P., Engleman, E.A., Prozac (fluoxetine, Lilly 110140), the first selective serotonin uptake inhibitor and an antidepressant drug: twenty years since its first publication (1995) Life Sci., 57, pp. 411-441
  • World Health Organization, Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water. Technical Report (2011), p. 52. , WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication ISBN 9789241502085; Wullimann, M.F., The central nervous system (1998) Physiology of Fishes, pp. 245-282. , D.H. Evans second ed. CRC Press LLC Boca Ratón
  • Yu, K.L., Rosenblum, P.M., Peter, R.E., In vitro release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the brain preoptic-anterior hypothalamic region and pituitary of female goldfish (1991) Gen. Comp. Endocr., 81, pp. 256-267


---------- APA ----------
Dorelle, L.S., Da Cuña, R.H., Rey Vázquez, G., Höcht, C., Shimizu, A., Genovese, G. & Lo Nostro, F.L. (2017) . The SSRI fluoxetine exhibits mild effects on the reproductive axis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Cichliformes). Chemosphere, 171, 370-378.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Dorelle, L.S., Da Cuña, R.H., Rey Vázquez, G., Höcht, C., Shimizu, A., Genovese, G., et al. "The SSRI fluoxetine exhibits mild effects on the reproductive axis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Cichliformes)" . Chemosphere 171 (2017) : 370-378.
---------- MLA ----------
Dorelle, L.S., Da Cuña, R.H., Rey Vázquez, G., Höcht, C., Shimizu, A., Genovese, G., et al. "The SSRI fluoxetine exhibits mild effects on the reproductive axis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Cichliformes)" . Chemosphere, vol. 171, 2017, pp. 370-378.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Dorelle, L.S., Da Cuña, R.H., Rey Vázquez, G., Höcht, C., Shimizu, A., Genovese, G., et al. The SSRI fluoxetine exhibits mild effects on the reproductive axis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Cichliformes). Chemosphere. 2017;171:370-378.