Yun, M.H.; Torres, P.S.; El Oirdi, M.; Rigano, L.A.; Gonzalez-Lamothe, R.; Marano, M.R.; Castagnaro, A.P.; Dankert, M.A.; Bouarab, K.; Vojnov, A.A. "Xanthan induces plant susceptibility by suppressing callose deposition" (2006) Plant Physiology. 141(1):178-187
Este artículo es de Acceso Abierto y puede ser descargado en su versión final desde nuestro repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


Xanthan is the major exopolysaccharide secreted by Xanthomonas spp. Despite its diverse roles in bacterial pathogenesis of plants, little is known about the real implication of this molecule in Xanthomonas pathogenesis. In this study we show that in contrast to Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris strain 8004 (wild type), the xanthan minus mutant (strain 8397) and the mutant strain 8396, which is producing truncated xanthan, fail to cause disease in both Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. In contrast to wild type, 8397 and 8396 strains induce callose deposition in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis plants. Interestingly, treatment with xanthan but not truncated xanthan, suppresses the accumulation of callose and enhances the susceptibility of both N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis plants to 8397 and 8396 mutant strains. Finally, in concordance, we also show that treatment with an inhibitor of callose deposition previous to infection induces susceptibility to 8397 and 8396 strains. Thus, xanthan suppression effect on callose deposition seems to be important for Xanthomonas infectivity. © 2006 American Society of Plant Biologists.


Documento: Artículo
Título:Xanthan induces plant susceptibility by suppressing callose deposition
Autor:Yun, M.H.; Torres, P.S.; El Oirdi, M.; Rigano, L.A.; Gonzalez-Lamothe, R.; Marano, M.R.; Castagnaro, A.P.; Dankert, M.A.; Bouarab, K.; Vojnov, A.A.
Filiación:Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1405BWE, Argentina
Département de Biologie, Centre de Recherche sur les Mécanismes du Fonctionnement Cellulaire, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que. J1K2R1, Canada
Department of Biochemistry, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Que. H3C 3J7, Canada
Instituto de Biologia Molecular de Rosario, Departmento Microbiología, Universidad National de Rosario, Rosario S2002LRK, Argentina
Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Las Talitas, 4101-Tucuman, Argentina
Palabras clave:Diseases; Enzyme inhibition; Plants (botany); Arabidopsis plants; Callose deposition; Xanthomonas pathogenesis; Polysaccharides; bacterial polysaccharide; callose; deoxyglucose; glucan; xanthan; amino acid sequence; Arabidopsis; article; chemistry; drug effect; gene deletion; histology; metabolism; microbiology; necrosis; pathogenicity; physiology; plant leaf; tobacco; Xanthomonas campestris; Amino Acid Sequence; Arabidopsis; Deoxyglucose; Glucans; Necrosis; Plant Leaves; Polysaccharides, Bacterial; Sequence Deletion; Tobacco; Xanthomonas campestris; Callose; Diseases; Enzymatic Activity; Xanthan Gum; Arabidopsis; Arabidopsis thaliana; Bacteria (microorganisms); Nicotiana benthamiana; Xanthomonas; Xanthomonas campestris
Página de inicio:178
Página de fin:187
Título revista:Plant Physiology
Título revista abreviado:Plant Physiol.
CAS:deoxyglucose, 154-17-6; glucan, 9012-72-0, 9037-91-6; xanthan, 11138-66-2; callose, 9064-51-1; Deoxyglucose, 154-17-6; Glucans; Polysaccharides, Bacterial; xanthan gum, 11138-66-2


  • Abramovitch, R.B., Martin, G.B., Strategies used by bacterial pathogens to suppress plant defenses (2004) Curr Opin Plant Biol, 7, pp. 356-364
  • Abramovitch, R.B., Martin, G.B., AvrPtoB: A bacterial type III effector that both elicits and suppresses programmed cell death associated with plant immunity (2005) FEMS Microbiol Lett, 245, pp. 1-8
  • Alfano, J.R., Collmer, A., Type III secretion system effector proteins: Double agents in bacterial disease and plant defense (2004) Annu Rev Phytopathol, 42, pp. 385-414
  • Amor, Y., Haigler, C.H., Johnson, S., Wainscott, M., Delmer, D.P., A membrane-associated form of sucrose synthase and its potential role in synthesis of cellulose and callose in plants (1995) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 92, pp. 9353-9357
  • Barrère, G.C., Barber, C.E., Daniels, M.J., Molecular cloning of genes involved in the production of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (1986) Int J Biol Macromol, 8, pp. 372-374
  • Bender, C.L., Alarcon-Chaidez, F., Gross, D.C., Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: Mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases (1999) Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 63, pp. 266-292
  • Bouarab, K., Melton, R., Peart, J., Baulcombe, D., Osbourn, A., A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defenses (2002) Nature, 418, pp. 889-892
  • Braun, E.J., Colonization of resistant and susceptible maize plants by Erwinia stewartii strains differing in exopolysaccharide production (1990) Physiol Mol Plant Pathol, 36, pp. 363-379
  • Cadmus, M., Rojovin, S.P., Burton, K.A., Pittsley, J.E., Knutson, C.A., Jeanes, A., Colonial variation in Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 and characterization of the polysaccharide from a variant strain (1976) Can J Microbiol, 22, pp. 942-948
  • Daniels, M.J., Barber, C.E., Turner, P.C., Sawczyc, M.K., Byrde, R.J.W., Fielding, A.H., Cloning of genes involved in pathogenicity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris using the broad host range cosmid pLAFR1 (1984) EMBO J, 3, pp. 3323-3328
  • DebRoy, S., Thilmony, R., Kwack, Y.B., Nomuta, K., He, S.Y., A family of conserved bacterial effectors inhibits salicylic acid-mediated basal immunity and promotes disease necrosis in plants (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 101, pp. 9927-9932
  • Delmer, D.P., Amor, Y., Cellulose biosynthesis (1995) Plant Cell, 7, pp. 987-1000
  • Denny, T.P., Involvement of bacterial polysaccharide in plant pathogenesis (1995) Annu Rev Phytopathol, 33, pp. 173-197
  • Dolph, P.J., Majerczak, D.R., Coplin, D.L., Characterization of a gene cluster for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and virulence in Erwinia stewartii (1988) J Bacteriol, 170, pp. 865-871
  • Dow, J.M., Daniels, M.J., Xylella genomics and bacterial pathogenicity to plants (2000) Yeast, 17, pp. 263-271
  • Geier, G., Geider, K., Characterization and influence on virulence of the levansucrase gene from the fireblight pathogen Erwinia amylovora (1993) Physiol Mol Plant Pathol, 42, pp. 387-404
  • Hauck, P., Thilmony, R., He, S.Y., A Pseudomonas syringae type III effector suppresses cell wall-based extracellular defense in susceptible Arabidopsis plants (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100, pp. 8577-8582
  • Heyraud, A., Sayah, B., Vojnov, A., Colin-Morel, P., Gey, C., Geremia, R.A., Dankert, M., Structure of an extracellular mannosylated cellulose produced by a mutant strain of Xanthomonas campestris (1998) Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand), 44, pp. 447-454
  • Ielpi, L., Couso, R.O., Dankert, M.A., Sequential assembly and polymerization of the polyprenol-linked pentasaccharide repeating unit of the xanthan polysaccharide in Xanthomonas campestris (1993) J Bacteriol, 175, pp. 2490-2500
  • Jaffe, M.J., Leopold, A.C., Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (1984) Planta, 161, pp. 20-26
  • Jansson, P.E., Kenne, L., Lindberg, B., Structure of extracellular polysaccharide from Xanthomonas campestris (1975) Carbohydr Res, 45, pp. 274-282
  • Kang, Y., Saile, E., Schell, M.A., Denny, T.P., Quantitative immunofluorescence of regulated eps gene expression in single cells of Ralstonia solanacearum (1999) Appl Environ Microbiol, 65, pp. 2356-2362
  • Kao, C.C., Barlow, E., Sequeira, L., Extracellular polysaccharide is required for wild-type virulence of Pseudomonas solanacearum (1992) J Bacteriol, 174, pp. 1068-1071
  • Kauss, H., The role of the plasma membrane in host-pathogen interactions (1991) The Plant Plasma Membrane, pp. 320-350. , C Larsson, IM Moller, eds, Springer-Verlag, Berlin
  • Keshavarzi, M., Soylu, S., Brown, I., Bonas, U., Nicole, M., Rossiter, J., Mansfield, J., Basal defenses induced in pepper by lipopolysaccharides are suppressed by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria (2004) Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 17, pp. 805-815
  • Köhle, H., Jeblick, W., Poten, F., Blaschek, W., Kauss, H., Chitosan-elicited callose synthesis in soybean cells as a Ca 2+-dependent process (1985) Plant Physiol, 77, pp. 544-551
  • Lattner, D., Flemmingb, H.C., Mayera, C., 13C-NMR study of the interaction of bacterial alginate with bivalent cations (2003) Int J Biol Macromol, 33, pp. 81-88
  • Melton, L.D., Mindt, L., Rees, D.A., Sanderson, G.R., Covalent structure of the extracellular polysaccharide from Xanthomonas campestris: Evidence from partial hydrolysis studies (1976) Carbohydr Res, 46, pp. 245-257
  • Mittal, S., Davis, K.R., Role of the phytotoxin coronatine in the infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (1995) Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 8, pp. 165-171
  • Newman, M.A., Conrads-Strauch, J., Scofield, G., Daniels, M.J., Dow, J.M., Defense-related gene induction in Brassica campestris in response to defined mutants of Xanthomonas campestris with altered pathogenicity (1994) Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 7, pp. 553-563
  • Nomura, K., Melotto, M., He, S.Y., Suppression of host defense in compatible plant-Pseudomonas syringae interactions (2005) Curr Opin Plant Biol, 8, pp. 361-368
  • Saile, E., McGarvey, J.A., Schell, M.A., Denny, T.P., Role of extracellular polysaccharide and endoglucanase in root invasion and colonization of tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum (1997) Phytopathology, 87, pp. 1264-1271
  • Slater, H., Alvarez-Morales, A., Barber, C.E., Daniels, M.J., Dow, J.M., A two-component system involving an HD-GYP domain protein links cell-cell signalling to pathogenicity gene expression in Xanthomonas campestris (2000) Mol Microbiol, 38, pp. 986-1003
  • Stone, B.A., Clarke, A.E., (1992) Chemistry and Biology of (1 → 3)-β-D-Glucans, , La Trobe University Press, Victoria, Australia
  • Tang, J.L., Liu, Y.N., Barber, C.E., Dow, J.M., Wootton, J.C., Daniels, M.J., Genetic and molecular analysis of a cluster of rpf genes involved in positive regulation of synthesis of extracellular enzymes and polysaccharide in Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (1991) Mol Gen Genet, 226, pp. 409-417
  • Tempio, J.S., Zatz, J.L., Interaction of xanthan gum with suspended solids (1981) J Pharm Sci, 70, pp. 554-558
  • Ton, J., Mauch-Mani, B., β-amino-butyric acid-induced resistance against necrotrophic pathogens is based on ABA-dependent priming for callose (2004) Plant J, 38, pp. 119-130
  • Tornero, P., Dangl, J.L., A high-throughput method for quantifying growth of phytopathogenic bacteria in Arabidopsis thaliana (2001) Plant J, 28, pp. 475-481
  • Vanderslice, R.W., Doherty, D.H., Capage, M.A., Betlach, M.R., Hassler, R.A., Henderson, N.M., Ryan-Graniero, J., Tecklenburg, M., (1990) Biomedical and Biotechnological Advances in Industrial Polysaccharides, pp. 145-156. , Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York
  • Vojnov, A.A., Bassi, D.E., Daniels, M.J., Dankert, M.A., Biosynthesis of a substituted cellulose from a mutant strain of Xanthomonas campestris (2002) Carbohydr Res, 337, pp. 315-326
  • Vojnov, A.A., Slater, H., Daniels, M.J., Dow, J.M., Expression of the gum operon directing xanthan biosynthesis in Xanthomonas campestris and its regulation in planta (2001) Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 14, pp. 768-774
  • Vojnov, A.A., Zorreguieta, A., Dow, J.M., Daniels, M.J., Dankert, M.A., Evidence for a role for the gumB and gumC gene products in the formation of xanthan from its pentasaccharide repeating unit by Xanthomonas campestris (1998) Microbiology, 144, pp. 1487-1493
  • Yu, J., Peñaloza-Vázquez, A., Chakrabarty, A.M., Bender, C.L., Involvement of the exopolysaccharide alginate in the virulence and epiphytic fitness of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (1999) Mol Microbiol, 33, pp. 712-720


---------- APA ----------
Yun, M.H., Torres, P.S., El Oirdi, M., Rigano, L.A., Gonzalez-Lamothe, R., Marano, M.R., Castagnaro, A.P.,..., Vojnov, A.A. (2006) . Xanthan induces plant susceptibility by suppressing callose deposition. Plant Physiology, 141(1), 178-187.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Yun, M.H., Torres, P.S., El Oirdi, M., Rigano, L.A., Gonzalez-Lamothe, R., Marano, M.R., et al. "Xanthan induces plant susceptibility by suppressing callose deposition" . Plant Physiology 141, no. 1 (2006) : 178-187.
---------- MLA ----------
Yun, M.H., Torres, P.S., El Oirdi, M., Rigano, L.A., Gonzalez-Lamothe, R., Marano, M.R., et al. "Xanthan induces plant susceptibility by suppressing callose deposition" . Plant Physiology, vol. 141, no. 1, 2006, pp. 178-187.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Yun, M.H., Torres, P.S., El Oirdi, M., Rigano, L.A., Gonzalez-Lamothe, R., Marano, M.R., et al. Xanthan induces plant susceptibility by suppressing callose deposition. Plant Physiol. 2006;141(1):178-187.