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Mathematics shares with language an essential reliance on the human capacity for recursion, permitting the generation of an infinite range of embedded expressions from a finite set of symbols. We studied the role of syntax in arithmetic thinking, a neglected component of numerical cognition, by examining eye movement sequences during the calculation of arithmetic expressions. Specifically, we investigated whether, similar to language, an expression has to be scanned sequentially while the nested syntactic structure is being computed or, alternatively, whether this structure can be extracted quickly and in parallel. Our data provide evidence for the latter: fixations sequences were stereotypically organized in clusters that reflected a fast identification of syntactic embeddings. A syntactically relevant pattern of eye movement was observed even when syntax was defined by implicit procedural rules (precedence of multiplication over addition) rather than explicit parentheses. While the total number of fixations was determined by syntax, the duration of each fixation varied with the complexity of the arithmetic operation at each step. These findings provide strong evidence for a syntactic organization for arithmetic thinking, paving the way for further comparative analysis of differences and coincidences in the instantiation of recursion in language and mathematics. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Documento: Artículo
Título:Eye gaze reveals a fast, parallel extraction of the syntax of arithmetic formulas
Autor:Schneider, E.; Maruyama, M.; Dehaene, S.; Sigman, M.
Filiación:Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, Physics Department, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
INSERM, U992, Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, F-91191 Gif/Yvette, France
CEA, DSV/I2BM, NeuroSpin Center, F-91191 Gif/Yvette, France
Univ Paris-Sud, Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, F-91191 Gif/Yvette, France
Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France
Palabras clave:Arithmetic; Cognitive architecture; Gestalt; Language; Mathematical education; adult; arithmetic; article; calculation; clinical article; cognition; eye fixation; eye movement; gaze; human; language; priority journal; stereotypy; thinking; Adult; Cognition; Eye Movement Measurements; Eye Movements; Fixation, Ocular; Humans; Mathematics; Reaction Time; Reading
Página de inicio:475
Página de fin:490
Título revista:Cognition
Título revista abreviado:Cognition


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---------- APA ----------
Schneider, E., Maruyama, M., Dehaene, S. & Sigman, M. (2012) . Eye gaze reveals a fast, parallel extraction of the syntax of arithmetic formulas. Cognition, 125(3), 475-490.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Schneider, E., Maruyama, M., Dehaene, S., Sigman, M. "Eye gaze reveals a fast, parallel extraction of the syntax of arithmetic formulas" . Cognition 125, no. 3 (2012) : 475-490.
---------- MLA ----------
Schneider, E., Maruyama, M., Dehaene, S., Sigman, M. "Eye gaze reveals a fast, parallel extraction of the syntax of arithmetic formulas" . Cognition, vol. 125, no. 3, 2012, pp. 475-490.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Schneider, E., Maruyama, M., Dehaene, S., Sigman, M. Eye gaze reveals a fast, parallel extraction of the syntax of arithmetic formulas. Cognition. 2012;125(3):475-490.