Este artículo es de Acceso Abierto y puede ser descargado en su versión final desde nuestro repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


The sense of olfaction in armadillos plays an important role, suggested by the great development of the nasal structures, olfactory bulbs, and related brain regions. The mammalian olfactory mucosa is a privileged site of neuronal death and regeneration during the whole life span. A detailed knowledge of its ultrastructure is convenient for gaining insight into the factors controlling those phenomena. We performed this work in species not previously studied in order to provide a firm basis for further research on those factors. No information is available on the histology and ultrastructure of the olfactory mucosa in the order Xenarthra to which armadillos belong. Samples from the endoturbinals of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination by the usual conventional means. The olfactory epithelium of Chaetophractus villosus shows the classical three types of cells: supporting cells, olfactory receptor neurons, and basal cells. The olfactory neurons and the basal cells were similar to that described in other species. Two different types of supporting cells are described. An outstanding characteristic of the supporting cells is the normal presence of abundant phagosomes, apical secretory granules, apocrine-like protrusions, and highly developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Apoptotic bodies are frequently found in the infranuclear cytoplasm of supporting cells. The ductular epithelium of Bowman's glands reveals secretory activity. The lamina propria shows mixed Bowman's glands. Great development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is observed in the mucous acinar cells. Evidence for merocrine and apocrine mechanisms in the Bowman's glands is presented. The presence of apoptotic bodies and phagosomes in supporting cells suggests a participation in the cellular events induced by cell death and proliferation of the olfactory epithelium. The variety of characteristics exhibited by the supporting cells of the olfactory mucosa may contribute to a deeper understanding of their scarcely known functions.


Documento: Artículo
Título:Olfactory mucosa of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus: An ultrastructural study
Autor:Ferrari, C.C.; Aldana Marcos, H.J.; Carmanchahi, P.D.; Affanni, J.M.
Filiación:Instituto de Neurociencia, Fac. de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires, Argentina
INEUCI-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. II, Lab. 102 (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Palabras clave:Apocrine secretion; Apoptosis; Armadillo; Electron microscopy; Olfactory mucosa; Supporting cells; Xenarthra; animal tissue; armadillo; article; cell type; cell ultrastructure; electron microscopy; endoplasmic reticulum; histology; nonhuman; olfactory epithelium; phagosome; priority journal; smelling; Animals; Apocrine Glands; Apoptosis; Armadillos; Epithelial Cells; Female; Male; Microscopy, Electron; Olfactory Mucosa; Olfactory Nerve; Smell; South America; Animalia; Armadillo; Chaetophractus villosus; Dasypodidae; Edentata; Mammalia
Página de inicio:325
Página de fin:339
Título revista:Anatomical Record
Título revista abreviado:Anat. Rec.


  • Affanni, J.M., Garcia Samartino, L., Comparative study of electrophysiological phenomena in the olfactory bulb of some South American marsupials and edentates (1984) Comparative Physiology of Sensory Systems, pp. 315-331. , Bolis L, Keynes RD, Madrell SHP, eds. London: Cambridge University Press
  • Affanni, J.M., Garcia Samartino, L., Casanave, E.B., Dezi, R., Absence of apnea in armadillos covered by soil (1987) Resp. Physiol., 67, pp. 239-243
  • Allison, A.C., The morphology of the olfactory system in the vertebrates (1953) Biol. Rev., 28, pp. 195-244
  • Atoji, Y., Sugimura, M., Suzuki, Y., Sebaceous glands of the infraorbital gland of the Japanese serow Capricornis crispus (1989) J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol., 21, pp. 375-383
  • Baker, H., Transport phenomena within the olfactory system (1995) Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation, pp. 173-190. , Doty RL, ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc
  • Bell, M., A comparative study of the ultrastructural of the sebaceous glands of man and other primates (1974) J. Invest. Dermatol., 6, pp. 132-143
  • Benítez, I., Aldana Marcos, H.J., Affanni, J.M., The encephalon of Chaetophractus villosus. A general view of its most salient features (1994) Comunicaciones Biologicas, 12, pp. 57-73
  • Dahl, A.R., Hadley, W.M., Nasal cavity enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism: Effects on the toxicity of inhalants (1991) Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 21, pp. 345-372
  • Dear, T.N., Boehm, T., Keverne, E.B., Rabbitts, T.H., Novel genes for potential ligands-binding proteins in subregions of the olfactory mucosa (1991) EMBO J., 10, pp. 2810-2819
  • Eisenberg, J.F., (1981) The Mammalian Radiations. An Analysis of Trends in Evolution, Adaptation, and Behavior, pp. 3-56. , Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
  • Engelman, G., The phylogeny of the Xenarthra (1985) The Ecology and Evolution of Armadillos, Sloths and Vermilinguas, pp. 51-64. , Montgomery GG, ed. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press
  • Evans, J.E., Miller, M.L., Andringa, A., Hastings, L., Behavioral, histological, and neurochemical effects of nickel (II) on the rat olfactory system (1995) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 103, pp. 209-220
  • Farbman, A.I., (1992) Cell Biology of Olfaction, p. 282. , London: Cambridge University Press
  • Farbman, A.I., Buchholz, J.A., Transforming growth factor αand other growth factors stimulate cell division in olfactory epithelium in vitro (1996) J. Neurobiol., 30, pp. 267-280
  • Ferrari, C.C., (1997) The Olfactory Structure of the Armadillos Chaetophractus Villosus and Dasypus Hybridus, , Doctoral Dissertation. Buenos Aires University, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Ferreyra-Moyano, H., Cinelli, A.R., Axonal projections and conduction properties of olfactory peduncle neurons in the armadillo (Chaetophractus vellerosus) (1986) Exp. Brain Res., 64, pp. 527-534
  • Frisch, D., Ultrastructure of mouse olfactory mucosa (1967) Am. J. Anat., 121, pp. 87-120
  • Gesase, A.P., Satoh, Y., Ono, K., Secretagogue-induced apocrine secretion in the Harderian gland of the rat (1996) Cell Tissue Res., 285, pp. 501-507
  • Getchell, M.L., Getchell, T.V., Inmunohistochemical localization of components of the immune barrier in the olfactory mucosa of salamanders and rats (1991) Anat. Rec., 231, pp. 358-374
  • Getchell, M.L., Getchell, T.V., Fine structural aspects of secretions and extrinsic innervation of the olfactory mucosa (1992) Microsc. Res. Tech., 23, pp. 111-127
  • Getchell, M.L., Rafols, J.A., Getchell, T.V., Histological and histochemical studies of the secretory components of the salamander olfactory mucosa: Effects of isoproterenol and olfactory nerve section (1984) Anat. Rec., 208, pp. 553-565
  • Ghadially, F.N., Nucleus (1988) Ultrastructural Pathology of the Cell and Matrix, 1, pp. 104-105. , 3rd. ed. London: Butterworth
  • Grassé, P., Organe olfactic (1955) Traité de Zoologie, 12, pp. 522-552. , Masson et C10 eds. Paris: Libraires de L'Académie de Medicine
  • Graziadei, P.P., The ultrastructure of vertebrates olfactory mucosa (1973) The Ultrastructure of Sensory Organs, pp. 269-305. , Friedmann I, ed. New York: North-Holland Publishing Co
  • Graziadei, P.P., Monti Graziadei, G.A., Neurogenesis and neuron regeneration in the olfactory system of mammals. I. Morphological aspects of differentiation and structural organization of the olfactory neurons (1979) J. Neurocytol., 8, pp. 1-18
  • Kaliner, M.A., Human nasal respiratory secretions and host defense (1991) Am. Rev. Resp. Dis., 144, pp. 552-556
  • Kratzing, J.E., The olfactory mucosa of the sheep (1970) Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 23, pp. 447-458
  • Lewis, J.L., Dahl, A.R., Olfactory mucosa: Composition, enzymatic localization and metabolism (1995) Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation, pp. 33-52. , Doty RL, ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc
  • López, J.M., Tolivia, J., Alvarez-Uria, M., Postnatal development of the Harderian gland in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): A light and electron microscopy study (1992) Anat. Rec., 233, pp. 597-616
  • Lucheroni, A., Maurizi, M., Spreca, A., Palmerini, C.A., Binazzi, M., Some aspects of the secretory activity of the human olfactory glands (1986) Rhynology, 24, pp. 57-60
  • Magrassi, L., Graziadei, P.P.C., Cell death in the olfactory epithelium (1995) Anat. Embryol., 192, pp. 77-87
  • Martineau-Doiz, B., Caya, I., Ultrastructural characterization of the nasal respiratory epithelium in the piglet (1996) Anat. Rec., 246, pp. 169-175
  • Mc Kenna, M.C., Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Mammalian (1975) Phylogeny of Primates, pp. 21-46. , Luckett WP and Szalay FS, eds. New York: Plenum Press
  • Meinel, W., Erhardt, H., Apical protuberances of supporting cells in the region olfactoria of the mole, Talpa europaea, Linnaeus, 1758 (Insectivora, Talpidae) (1978) Cell Tissue Res., 193, pp. 175-178
  • Mellert, T.K., Getchell, M.L., Sparks, L., Getchell, T.V., Characterization of the immune barrier in human olfactory mucosa (1992) Otoryngol. Head Neck Surg., 106, pp. 181-188
  • Morrison, E.E., Costanzo, R.M., Morphology of olfactory epithelium in humans and other vertebrates (1992) Microsc. Res. Tech., 23, pp. 49-61
  • Morrison, E.E., Moran, D.T., Anatomy and ultrastructure of the human olfactory neuroepithelium (1995) Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation, pp. 75-97. , Doty R, ed. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc
  • Novacek, M.J., The radiation of placental mammals (1994) Major Features of Vertebrate Evolution. Short Courses in Paleontology, 7, pp. 220-237. , D. Prothero, R. Schoch and R. Spencer (eds.) Randall Spencer Series, ed. London: A Publication of the Paleontological Society
  • Payne, A.P., The Harderian gland: A tercentennial review (1994) J. Anat., 185, pp. 1-49
  • Pixley, S.K., Farbman, A.I., Menco, B.M., Monoclonal antibody marker for olfactory sustentacular cell microvilli (1997) Anat. Rec., 248, pp. 307-321
  • Polyzonis, B.M., Kafandaris, P.M., Gigis, P.I., Demetriou, T., An electron microscopic study of human olfactory mucosa (1979) J. Anat., 128, pp. 77-83
  • Ponzio, R., Sistema de endomembranas (1996) Biología Celular y Molecular, pp. 221-273. , P De Robertis ED (h), Hib J, Ponzio R, eds. Buenos Aires: El Ateneo
  • Rafols, J.A., Getchell, T.V., Morphological relations between the receptors neurons, sustentacular cells and Schwann cells in the olfactory mucosa of the salamander (1983) Anat. Rec., 206, pp. 87-101
  • Russell, L.D., Leydig cell structure (1996) The Leydig Cell, pp. 43-96. , Payne AH, Hardy MP, Russell LD, eds. Vienna: Cache River Press
  • Saini, K.D., Breipohl, W., Surface morphology in the olfactory epithelium of normal male and female Rhesus monkeys (1976) Am. J. Anat., 147, pp. 433-436
  • Schwob, J.E., Huard, J.M.T., Luskin, M.B., Youngentob, S.L., Retroviral lineage studies of the rat olfactory epithelium (1994) Chem. Senses, 19, pp. 671-682
  • Schwob, J.E., Youngntob, S.T., Mezza, R.C., Reconstitution of the rat olfactory epithelium after methyl bromide-induced lesion (1995) J. Comp. Neurol., 359, pp. 15-37
  • Sinowatz, F., Amselgruber, W., Postnatal development of the bovine Sertoli cells (1986) Anat. Embryol., 174, pp. 413-423
  • Suzuki, Y., Schafer, J., Farbman, A.I., Phagocytic cells in the rat olfactory epithelium after bulbectomy (1995) Exp. Neurol., 136, pp. 225-233
  • Suzuki, Y., Takeda, M., Farbman, A.I., Supporting cells as phagocytes in the olfactory epithelium after bulbectomy (1996) J. Comp. Neurol., 376, pp. 509-517
  • Tandler, B., Structure of mucous cells in salivary glands (1993) Microsc. Res. Techn., 26, pp. 49-56
  • Tandler, B., Phillips, C.J., Structure of serous cells in salivary glands (1993) Microsc. Res. Techn., 26, pp. 32-48
  • Taniguchi, K., Toshima, Y., Saito, T.R., Taniguchi, K., Development of the Bowman's glands and Jacobson's glands in the Japanese reddish frog, Rana japonica (1996) J. Vet. Med. Sci., 58, pp. 17-22
  • Wang, R.T., Halpern, M., Scanning electron microscopic studies of the surface morphology of the vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of garter snake (1980) Am. J. Anat., 157, pp. 399-428
  • Wetzel, R., The identification and distribution of recent Xenarthra (Edentata) (1985) The Ecology and Evolution of Armadillos, Sloths and Vermilinguas, pp. 5-21. , Montgomery GG, ed. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press
  • Wyllie, A.H., Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation (1980) Nature, 284, pp. 555-556
  • Yamamoto, M., An electron microscopic study of the olfactory mucosa in the bat and the rabbit (1976) Arch. Histol. Japon., 35, pp. 359-412
  • Young, R.W., The renewal of photoreceptors cell outer segments (1967) J. Cell Biol., 33, pp. 61-72


---------- APA ----------
Ferrari, C.C., Aldana Marcos, H.J., Carmanchahi, P.D. & Affanni, J.M. (1998) . Olfactory mucosa of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus: An ultrastructural study. Anatomical Record, 252(3), 325-339.<325::AID-AR1>3.0.CO;2-T
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Ferrari, C.C., Aldana Marcos, H.J., Carmanchahi, P.D., Affanni, J.M. "Olfactory mucosa of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus: An ultrastructural study" . Anatomical Record 252, no. 3 (1998) : 325-339.<325::AID-AR1>3.0.CO;2-T
---------- MLA ----------
Ferrari, C.C., Aldana Marcos, H.J., Carmanchahi, P.D., Affanni, J.M. "Olfactory mucosa of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus: An ultrastructural study" . Anatomical Record, vol. 252, no. 3, 1998, pp. 325-339.<325::AID-AR1>3.0.CO;2-T
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Ferrari, C.C., Aldana Marcos, H.J., Carmanchahi, P.D., Affanni, J.M. Olfactory mucosa of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus: An ultrastructural study. Anat. Rec. 1998;252(3):325-339.<325::AID-AR1>3.0.CO;2-T