Gaetano, L.C.; Abdala, F.; Govender, R."The Postcranial Skeleton of the Lower Jurassic Tritylodon Longaevus from Southern Africa" (2017) Ameghiniana. 54(1):1-35
El editor no permite incluir ninguna versión del artículo en el Repositorio.
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


Tritylodon longaevus Owen, 1884 is one of the most common members of the Lower Jurassic faunas of the Karoo Basin. The cranial and dental anatomy of this taxon is well known, but its postcranium has not been previously addressed in detail. Our analysis shows that T. longaevus shares many postcranial features with other tritylodontids that distinguish them from other non-mammaliaform cynodonts. The correlation between taxon size and postcranial anatomical traits is briefly explored among tritylodontids, showing that few morphological differences among species correlate with size. Analysis of the purported oldest remains of Tritylodon, from the Norian Los Colorados Formation of Argentina, suggests that they cannot be unambiguously assigned to this taxon, circumscribing the record of Tritylodon to African localities.


Documento: Artículo
Título:The Postcranial Skeleton of the Lower Jurassic Tritylodon Longaevus from Southern Africa
Autor:Gaetano, L.C.; Abdala, F.; Govender, R.
Filiación:Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, FCEyN, Instituto de Estudios Andinos 'Don Pablo Groeber', IDEAN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Intendente Güiraldes 2160, Pabellón II, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, C1428EGA, Argentina
Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa
Iziko South African Museum, PO Box 61, 25 Queen Victoria Street, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa
Palabras clave:Eucynodontia; Lower Jurassic; Postcranium; Tritylodon longaevus; anatomy; cranium; dentition; fossil record; Jurassic; morphology; Norian; paleoecology; skeleton; tetrapod; Argentina
Página de inicio:1
Página de fin:35
Título revista:Ameghiniana
Título revista abreviado:Ameghiniana


  • Abdala, F., Elementos postcraneanos de Cynognathus (Synapsida-Cynodontia) del Triásico Inferior de la Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Consideraciones sobre la morfología del húmero en cinodontes (1999) Revista Española de Paleontología, 14, pp. 13-24
  • Angielczyk, K.D., Phylogenetic evidence for and implications of a dual origin of propaliny in anomodont therapsids (Synapsida) (2004) Paleobiology, 30, pp. 268-296
  • Anyonge, W., Body mass in large extant and extinct carnivores (1993) Journal of Zoology (London), 231, pp. 339-350
  • Arcucci, A.B., Marsicano, C.A., Caselli, A.T., Tetrapod association and palaeoenviroment of the Los Colorados Formation (Argentina): A significant sample from Western Gondwana at the end of the Triassic (2004) Geobios, 37, pp. 557-568
  • Bonaparte, J.F., Los tetrápodos del sector superior de la Formación Los Colorados, la Rioja, Argentina (Triásico Superior) (1971) Opera Lilloana, 22, pp. 87-102
  • Bonaparte, J.F., El primer ictidosaurio (Reptilia, Therapsida) de América del Sur, Chaliminia musteloides, del Triásico Superior de La Rioja (1980) 2° Congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Bioestratigrafía y 1er Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología (Buenos Aires), Actas, 1, pp. 123-133
  • Bonaparte, J.F., Martinelli, A.G., Schultz, C.L., New information on Brasilodon and Brasilitherium (Cynodontia, Probainognathia) from the Late Triassic of Southern Brazil (2005) Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8, pp. 25-46
  • Botha, J., (2002) The Palaeobiology of the Non-mammalian Cynodonts Deduced from Bone Microstructure and Stable Isotopes, 218p. , Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Unpublished
  • Botha-Brink, J., Abdala, F., Chinsamy-Turan, A., The radiation and osteohistology of nonmammaliaform cynodonts (2012) Forerunners of Mammals: Radiation, Histology, Biology, pp. 223-246. , A. Chinsamy-Turan (Ed.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington
  • Broili, F., Schröder, J., Beobachtungen an Wirbeltieren der Karrooformation. XIX. Ein neuer Fund von Tritylodon Owen (1936) Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, pp. 187-256
  • Broom, R., On Tritylodon and its relationships with the Multituberculata (1910) Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 80, pp. 760-769
  • Chinsamy, A., Hurum, J.H., Bone microstructure and growth patterns of early mammals (2006) Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51, pp. 325-338
  • Chow, M.-Z., A tritylodont specimen from Lufeng, Yunnan (1962) Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 6, pp. 365-367. , [In Chinese]
  • Clark, J.M., Hopson, J.A., Distinctive mammal-like reptile from Mexico and its bearing on the phylogeny of the Tritylodontidae (1985) Nature, 315, pp. 398-400
  • Crompton, A.W., Hotton, N., Functional morphology of the masticatory apparatus of two dicynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida) (1967) Postilla, 109, pp. 1-51
  • Fariña, R.A., Vizcaino, S.F., Bargo, M.S., Body mass estimations in Lujanian (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene of South America) mammal megafauna (1998) Mastozoología Neotropical, 5, pp. 87-108
  • Fourie, S., Further notes on a new tritylodontid from the Cave Sand-stone of South Africa (1962) Navorsinge Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein, 2, pp. 7-19
  • Fourie, S., A new tritylodontid from the Cave Sandstone of South Africa (1963) Nature, 198, p. 201
  • Ginsburg, L., Likhoelia ellenbergeri, tritylodonte du Trias supérieur du Basutoland (Afrique du Sud) (1962) Annales de Paléontologie, 48, pp. 177-194
  • Gow, C.E., The side wall of the braincase in cynodont therapsids, and a note on the homology of the mammalian promontorium (1986) South African Journal of Zoology, 21, pp. 136-148
  • Gow, C.E., Vascular system associated with the sidewall of the braincase and the prootic canals of cynodonts, including mammals (1991) South African Journal of Zoology, 26, pp. 140-144
  • Gow, C.E., A partial skeleton of the tritheledontid Pachygenelus (Therapsida: Cynodontia) (2001) Palaeontologia Africana, 37, pp. 93-97
  • Gregory, W.K., Camp, C.L., Studies in comparative myology and osteology. No. III (1918) Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 38, pp. 447-563
  • Hammer, W.R., Smith, N.D., A tritylodont postcanine from the Hanson Formation of Antarctica (2008) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28, pp. 269-273
  • Hopson, J.A., Kitching, J.W., A probainognathian cynodont from South Africa and the phylogeny of non-mammalian cynodonts (2001) Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 156, pp. 5-35
  • Jenkins, F.A., Jr., The postcranial skeleton of African cynodonts (1971) Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 36, pp. 1-216
  • Jenkins, F.A., Jr., Parrington, F.R., The postcranial skeletons of the Triassic mammals Eozostrodon, Megazostrodon and Erythrotherium (1976) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 273, pp. 387-431
  • Kemp, T.S., (1982) Mammal-like Reptiles and the Origin of Mammals., 363p. , Academic Press, London
  • Kemp, T.S., The relationships of mammals (1983) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 77, pp. 353-384
  • Kemp, T.S., Interrelationships of the synapsida (1988) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Vol.2: Mammals, pp. 23-29. , M.J. Benton (Ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford
  • Kemp, T.S., (2005) The Origin and Evolution of Mammals, 344p. , Oxford University Press, Oxford
  • Kermack, D.M., A new tritylodontid from the Kayenta Formation of Arizona (1982) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 76, pp. 1-17
  • Kitching, J.W., Raath, M.A., Fossils from the Elliot and Clarens formations (Karoo Sequence) of the north eastern Cape, Orange Free State and Lesotho, and a suggested biozonation based on tetrapods (1984) Palaeontologia Africana, 25, pp. 111-125
  • Kühne, W.G., (1956) The Liassic Therapsid Oligokyphus, 149p. , British Museum of Natural History, London
  • Lewis, G.E., Nearctylodon broomi, the first Nearctic tritylodont (1986) The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles, pp. 295-303. , N. Hotton III, P.D. MacLean, J.J. Roth, and E.C. Roth (Eds.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington
  • Liu, J., Olsen, P., The phylogenetic relationships of Eucynodontia (Amniota: Synapsida) (2010) Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 17, pp. 151-176
  • Lopatin, A.V., Agadjanian, A.K., A tritylodont (Tritylodontidae, Synapsida) from the Mesozoic of Yakutia (2008) Doklady Biological Sciences, 419, pp. 279-282
  • Luo, Z., Wu, X.-C., The small tetrapods of the Lower Lufeng Formation, Yunnan, China (1994) The Shadow of the Dinosaurs-Early Mesozoic Tetrapods, pp. 251-270. , N.C. Fraser and H.-D. Sues (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • Maisch, M.W., Matzke, A.T., Sun, G., A new tritylodontid from the Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation of the Junggar Basin (Xinjiang, NW China) (2004) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24, pp. 649-656
  • Martinelli, A.G., Bonaparte, J.F., Schultz, C.L., Rubert, R., A new tritheledontid (Therapsida, Eucynodontia) from the Late Triassic of Rio Grande do sul (Brazil) and its phylogenetic relationships among carnivorous non-mammalian eucynodonts (2005) Ameghiniana, 42, pp. 191-208
  • Martinelli, A.G., Rougier, G.W., On Chaliminia musteloides (Eucynodontia: Tritheledontidae) from the Late Triassic of Argentina, and a phylogeny of Ictidosauria (2007) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27, pp. 442-460
  • Matsuoka, H., Kusuhashi, N., Corfe, I.J., A new Early Cretaceous tritylodontid (Synapsida, Cynodontia, Mammaliamorpha) from the Kuwajima Formation (Tetori Group) of central Japan (2016) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology
  • Matsuoka, H., Setoguchi, T., Significance of Chinese tritylodonts (Synapsida, Cynodontia) for the systematic study of Japanese materials from the Lower Cretaceous Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group of Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan (2000) Asian Paleoprimatology, 1, pp. 161-176
  • Oliveira, T., Martinelli, A.G., Soares, M., New information about Irajatherium hernandezi Martinelli, Bonaparte, Schultz & Rubert 2005 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae) from the upper triassic (Caturrita Formation, Paraná Basin) of Brazil (2011) Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 85, pp. 67-82
  • Owen, R., On the skull and dentition of a Triassic mammal (Tritylodon longaevus) from South Africa (1884) Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 40, pp. 146-152
  • Parrington, F.R., The tritylodontoidea (1981) Journal of Natural History, 15, pp. 155-159
  • Ray, S., Botha, J., Chinsamy, A., Bone histology and growth pattern of some nonmammalian therapsids (2004) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24, pp. 634-648
  • De Ricqlès, A., Recherches paléohistologiques sur les os longs des Tétrapodes II, Quelques observations sur la structure des longs des Thériodontes (1969) Annales de Paléontologie (Vertébrés), 55, pp. 1-52
  • Rowe, T., Definition, diagnosis and origin of Mammalia (1988) Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8, pp. 241-264
  • Smith, R.M.H., Kitching, J.W., Sedimentology and vertebrate taphonomy of the Tritylodon Acme Zone: A reworked paleosol in the Early Jurassic Elliot Formation, Karoo Supergroup, South Africa (1997) Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 131, pp. 29-50
  • Sues, H.-D., The relationships of the Tritylodontidae (Synapsida) (1985) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 85, pp. 205-217
  • Sues, H.-D., The skull and dentition of two tritylodontid synapsids from the Lower Jurassic of western North America (1986) Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 151, pp. 217-268
  • Sues, H.-D., Jenkins, F.A., Jr., The postcranial skeleton of Kayentatherium wellesi from the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona and the phylogenetic significance of the postcranial features of tritylodontid cynodonts (2006) Amniote Paleobiology. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mammals, Birds and Reptiles, pp. 114-152. , M.T. Carrano, T.J. Gaudin, R.W. Blob, and J.R. Wible (Eds.), Chicago University Press, Chicago
  • Sullivan, C., Liu, J., Roberts, E.M., Huang, T.D., Yang, C., Zhonge, S., Pelvic morphology of a tritylodontid (Synapsida: Eucynodontia) from the Lower Jurassic of China, and some functional and phylogenetic implications (2013) Compte Rendus Palevol, 12, pp. 505-518
  • Sun, A.L., Skull morphology of the tritylodont genus Bienotheroides of Sichuan (1984) Scientita Sinica (Series B), 27, pp. 970-984
  • Sun, A.L., New material of Bienotheroides (tritylodont reptile) from the Shaximiao Formation of Sichuan (1986) Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 24, pp. 165-170
  • Sun, A., Li, Y., The postcranial skeleton of the late tritylodont Bienotheroides (1985) Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 23, pp. 133-151. , [In Chinese with English summary]
  • Tatarinov, L.P., Matchenko, E.N., A find of an aberrant tritylodont (Reptilia, Cynodontia) in the Lower Cretaceous of the Kemerovo Region (1999) Paleontological Journal, 33, pp. 422-428
  • Van Valkenburgh, B., Skeletal and dental predictors of body mass in carnivores (1990) Body Size in Mammalian Paleobiology: Estimation and Biological Implications, pp. 181-205. , J. Damuth, and B.J. MacFadden (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • Watabe, M., Tsubamoto, T., Tsogtbaatar, K., A new tritylodontid synapsid from Mongolia (2007) Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52, pp. 263-274
  • Young, C.C., Preliminary notes on the Mesozoic mammals of Lufeng, Yunnan, China (1940) Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, 20, pp. 93-111
  • Young, C.C., Mammal-like reptiles from Lufeng, Yunnan, China (1947) Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 117, pp. 537-597
  • Young, C.C., On a Bienotherium-like tritylodont from Szechuan, China (1982) Selected Works of Yang Zhongjian, pp. 10-13. , Science Press, Beijing, [In Chinese]


---------- APA ----------
Gaetano, L.C., Abdala, F. & Govender, R. (2017) . The Postcranial Skeleton of the Lower Jurassic Tritylodon Longaevus from Southern Africa. Ameghiniana, 54(1), 1-35.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Gaetano, L.C., Abdala, F., Govender, R. "The Postcranial Skeleton of the Lower Jurassic Tritylodon Longaevus from Southern Africa" . Ameghiniana 54, no. 1 (2017) : 1-35.
---------- MLA ----------
Gaetano, L.C., Abdala, F., Govender, R. "The Postcranial Skeleton of the Lower Jurassic Tritylodon Longaevus from Southern Africa" . Ameghiniana, vol. 54, no. 1, 2017, pp. 1-35.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Gaetano, L.C., Abdala, F., Govender, R. The Postcranial Skeleton of the Lower Jurassic Tritylodon Longaevus from Southern Africa. Ameghiniana. 2017;54(1):1-35.